Thursday, April 6, 2017

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Contents: 2017 Volume #24 pp 337 - 430

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Nature Structural & Molecular Biology


April 2017 Volume 24, Issue 4

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Separase-securin complex: a cunning way to control chromosome segregation   pp337 - 339
Martin R Singleton and Frank Uhlmann
Separases are crucial cell cycle proteases that control the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by cleaving chromosomal cohesin rings. Two new high-resolution structures of separase bound by its inhibitory chaperone securin illustrate intriguing regulatory mechanisms.

See also: Article by Boland et al.

Surveillance states   pp339 - 341
Pradyot Dash and Paul G Thomas
The binding of foreign peptides to host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) forms the basis of adaptive immune recognition. The MHC and T cell receptors (TCRs) use diverse structural solutions to enhance peptide presentation and recognition, and two new reports provide insights into noncanonical modes of detection and binding.

See also: Article by Pymm et al. | Article by Song et al.

Remodelers tap into nucleosome plasticity   pp341 - 343
Hari R Singh, Magdalena Murawska and Andreas G Ladurner
Chromatin-remodeling enzymes perform the formidable task of reorganizing the structure of a stable macromolecular assembly, the nucleosome. Recently published work demonstrates that the SNF2H chromatin remodeler distorts the histone octamer structure upon binding to the nucleosome, then taps into this induced plasticity to productively achieve nucleosome sliding.

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TOP2 synergizes with BAF chromatin remodeling for both resolution and formation of facultative heterochromatin   pp344 - 352
Erik L Miller, Diana C Hargreaves, Cigall Kadoch, Chiung-Ying Chang, Joseph P Calarco et al.
TOP2 collaborates with the BAF complex genome-wide to form and resolve facultative heterochromatin at transcriptional regulatory elements recognized by pluripotency factors.

Genome-wide mapping of long-range contacts unveils clustering of DNA double-strand breaks at damaged active genes   pp353 - 361
François Aymard, Marion Aguirrebengoa, Emmanuelle Guillou, Biola M Javierre, Beatrix Bugler et al.
Capture Hi-C analysis reveals that DNA double-strand breaks within transcriptionally active regions of the human genome form clusters that exhibit delayed repair in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

Structures of human O-GlcNAcase and its complexes reveal a new substrate recognition mode   pp362 - 369
Baobin Li, Hao Li, Lei Lu and Jiaoyang Jiang
Human OGA forms an unusual arm-in-arm homodimer with a substrate-binding cleft that affords extensive interactions with the peptide substrate in a recognition mode distinct from that of its bacterial homologs.

Quaternary contact in the initial interaction of CD4 with the HIV-1 envelope trimer   pp370 - 378
Qingbo Liu, Priyamvada Acharya, Michael A Dolan, Peng Zhang, Christina Guzzo et al.
Cryo-EM analyses of the initial contact of the HIV-1 Env trimer with the CD4 receptor reveal that CD4 interacts with two gp120 protomers; these quaternary contacts are important for viral infectivity.

HIV Tat protein and amyloid-β peptide form multifibrillar structures that cause neurotoxicity   pp379 - 386
Alina Hategan, Mario A Bianchet, Joseph Steiner, Elena Karnaukhova, Eliezer Masliah et al.
HIV Tat binding to the exterior of Aβ fibrils induces lateral aggregation and formation of fibers with increased adhesion, rigidity and mechanical resistance, thus potentially accounting for their higher neurotoxicity.

MHC-I peptides get out of the groove and enable a novel mechanism of HIV-1 escape   pp387 - 394
Phillip Pymm, Patricia T Illing, Sri H Ramarathinam, Geraldine M O'Connor, Victoria A Hughes et al.
Structural determination and analysis of HLA-I that presents an HIV-derived peptide to an NK cell receptor reveal that N-terminal extended epitope conformations contribute to immune recognition and mechanisms of HIV immune escape.

See also: News and Views by Dash & Thomas

Broad TCR repertoire and diverse structural solutions for recognition of an immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitope   pp395 - 406
InYoung Song, Anna Gil, Rabinarayan Mishra, Dario Ghersi, Liisa K Selin et al.
Crystal structure analysis combined with sequencing approaches uncover a broad T cell receptor repertoire and reveal the structural basis of influenza M1 epitope recognition.

See also: News and Views by Dash & Thomas

Mechanistic basis for the recognition of a misfolded protein by the molecular chaperone Hsp90   pp407 - 413
Javier Oroz, Jin Hae Kim, Bliss J Chang and Markus Zweckstetter
The interaction of Hsp90 with misfolded monomeric transthyretin is characterized via biophysical approaches, and the data indicate that Hsp90 may have a distinct recognition mode for aggregation-prone proteins.

Cryo-EM structure of a metazoan separase-securin complex at near-atomic resolution   pp414 - 418
Andreas Boland, Thomas G Martin, Ziguo Zhang, Jing Yang, Xiao-chen Bai et al.
Cryo-EM analyses provide a near-atomic view of the C. elegans securin-separase complex, with insights into the mechanism by which securin inhibits separase's protease activity.

See also: News and Views by Singleton & Uhlmann

A mammalian nervous-system-specific plasma membrane proteasome complex that modulates neuronal function   pp419 - 430
Kapil V Ramachandran and Seth S Margolis
A 20S proteasome complex localizes to neuronal plasma membrane, where it produces and releases extracellular peptides that induce neuronal calcium signaling.

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