Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Nature contents: 20 April 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 544 Issue 7650
This Week  
French scientists focus on the big political picture
Researchers in France overwhelmingly oppose the far right and can stamp out its rise by turning out to register their disapproval.
US foreign aid saves money as well as lives
Cutting the budget for applied research in foreign aid would make the United States less competitive.​
Social networks push runners to run further and faster than their friends
Online data sharing through wearable devices motivates people to do more exercise.

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World View  
Doom and gloom won't save the world
The best way to encourage conservation is to share our success stories, not to write obituaries for the planet, says Nancy Knowlton.
Seven Days  
Fake-drug crackdown, tackling misconduct and Europa’s plumes
The week in science: 14–20 April 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
French-election fears unite scientists in defence of liberal democracy
Threat of a far-right president galvanizes researchers to put politics first.
Declan Butler
  Drivers gear up for world’s first nanocar race
Chemists will navigate molecular wagons along a tiny golden track.
Davide Castelvecchi
Unravelling why shoelace knots fail
A better understanding of this pedestrian problem could lead to improved surgeons’ knots and fibres.
Erin Ross
  Republican scientists negotiate the Trump era
Conservative academics face a growing tension between their politics and the liberal atmosphere on many US campuses.
Sara Reardon
Global coalition chips away at neglected tropical diseases
Partnerships see some success in eliminating illnesses, but challenges, such as access to treatments, remain.
Amy Maxmen
DNA's secret weapon against knots and tangles
A simple process seems to explain how massive genomes stay organized and untangled. But no one can agree on what powers it.
Elie Dolgin
Correction webcasts

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EMD Serono 
Five hacks for digital democracy
Beth Simone Noveck urges researchers to work out how technology can improve public institutions.
Beth Simone Noveck
Track how technology is transforming work
Without data on how artificial intelligence is affecting jobs, policymakers will fly blind into the next industrial revolution, warn Tom Mitchell and Erik Brynjolfsson.
Tom Mitchell, Erik Brynjolfsson
Books and Arts  
Human behaviour: Guns and roses
Anne Harrington savours Robert Sapolsky's tome on humanity's vacillations.
Anne Harrington
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Perception: Our useful inability to see reality
There's some deviant thinking behind perception, discovers Douwe Draaisma.
Douwe Draaisma
Marine litter: Sea change for plastic pollution
Melanie Bergmann, Mine B. Tekman, Lars Gutow
  Carbon markets: extend, don't limit
Nathaniel Keohane, Erica Morehouse
Carbon markets: link with caution
Baran Doda, Luca Taschini
  Scientific methods: Teach children to spot fake facts
Steven B. Oppenheimer
Ronald Drever (1931–2017)
Experimental physicist key to the detection of gravitational waves.
Rainer Weiss
Corneal repair: a clear vision
David Holmes
  Let there be sight
David Holmes
Sponsor Sponsor
Animal behaviour: How to build a better dad
Oldfield mice and deer mice differ in their parental care, most dramatically in the behaviour of fathers. A study reveals the genetic and neuronal contributions to variation in parental care.
Molecular genetics: Chaperone protein gets personal
Two studies of the molecular chaperone protein HSP90 reveal how complex traits can be shaped by genetic and environmental context. This work highlights the challenges of personalized medicine.
Mechanism of chromatin remodelling revealed by the Snf2-nucleosome structure
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf2 chromatin remodeller bound to a nucleosome and a proposed mechanism for DNA translocation by Snf2 are presented.
Visualizing multistep elevator-like transitions of a nucleoside transporter
Multiple crystallographic structures of a concentrative nucleoside transporter show how it uses an ‘elevator’ mechanism to move its transport domain across the membrane.
Structure and allosteric inhibition of excitatory amino acid transporter 1
High-resolution structures of the thermostabilized human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1, alone or in association with its substrate or small molecule inhibitors, reveal architectural features of human SLC1 transporters and an allosteric mechanism of inhibition.
The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice
Parental care in mice evolves through multiple genetic changes; one candidate is vasopressin, the reduced expression of which promotes parental nest-building behaviour in monogamous mice.
Super-multiplex vibrational imaging
Stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions, combined with a new palette of probes, enables super-multiplex imaging of molecular targets in living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity.
Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow
Quasiparticles in strongly interacting fractional quantum Hall systems carry heat according to the same quantization of thermal conductance as for particles in non-interacting systems.
Cohesin is positioned in mammalian genomes by transcription, CTCF and Wapl
The distribution of cohesin in the mouse genome depends on CTCF, transcription and the cohesin release factor Wapl.
Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice
Treatment with plasma of an early developmental stage, human umbilical cord, revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice.
SLAMF7 is critical for phagocytosis of haematopoietic tumour cells via Mac-1 integrin
The identification of homotypic SLAMF7 interactions responsible for haematopoietic tumour cell phagocytosis by macrophages when the inhibitory receptor/ligand interaction of SIRPα/CD47 is blocked therapeutically.
Decarboxylative alkenylation
Starting with alkyl carboxylic acids, a simple olefin synthesis using any substitution pattern or geometry, based on amide-bond synthesis with nickel- or iron-based catalysis, is described.
News and Views  
Ecology: In peril from a perfect pathogen
Matthew C. Fisher
Materials science: Crystals aligned through graphene
Minjoo Larry Lee
Neurodegenerative Disease: Two–for–one on potential therapies
Ke Zhang, Jeffrey D. Rothstein
Microbiology: Gut microbes augment neurodegeneration
Daniel Erny, Marco Prinz
Materials science: How to print glass
Karl Ziemelis
Glaciology: Ice-shelf stability questioned
Alison Banwell
50 & 100 Years Ago
Structural biology: A receptor that might block itself
Christopher G. Tate
Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic
Frequent dispersal and short-lived local transmission clusters fuelled the 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Trevor Bedford et al.
Postsynaptic synaptotagmins mediate AMPA receptor exocytosis during LTP
Postsynaptic synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7 mediate calcium-dependent exocytosis of AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation.
Dick Wu, Taulant Bacaj, Wade Morishita et al.
A B12-dependent radical SAM enzyme involved in oxetanocin A biosynthesis
The biosynthesis of oxetanocin A involves OxsB, a B12-dependent S-adenosylmethionine radical enzyme, which catalyses an unusual ring contraction of a 2′-deoxyadenosine phosphate.
Jennifer Bridwell-Rabb, Aoshu Zhong, He G. Sun et al.
Structural basis for selectivity and diversity in angiotensin II receptors
Crystal structures of two complexes of the angiotensin II receptor AT2R with distinct tightly bound ligands reveal an active-like state of the receptor, in which helix VIII adopts a non-canonical position that blocks binding of G proteins and β-arrestins.
Haitao Zhang, Gye Won Han, Alexander Batyuk et al.
A temperate rocky super-Earth transiting a nearby cool star
An Earth-sized planet is observed orbiting a nearby star within the liquid-water, habitable zone, the atmospheric composition of which could be determined from future observations.
Jason A. Dittmann, Jonathan M. Irwin, David Charbonneau et al.
Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass
Using stereolithography 3D printers, a silica nanocomposite is shaped and then fused to produce non-porous, very smooth, highly transparent fused silica glass components.
Frederik Kotz, Karl Arnold, Werner Bauer et al.
Antarctic ice shelf potentially stabilized by export of meltwater in surface river
On the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica, a surface river that terminates in a waterfall can drain the ice shelf’s entire annual meltwater in just one week, potentially preventing the meltwater from hastening the catastrophic collapse of the shelf.
Robin E. Bell, Winnie Chu, Jonathan Kingslake et al.
Antisense oligonucleotide therapy for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
Antisense oligonucleotides against ATXN2 improved motor neuron function and restored firing frequency in cerebellar Purkinje cells in mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.
Daniel R. Scoles, Pratap Meera, Matthew D. Schneider et al.
Remote epitaxy through graphene enables two-dimensional material-based layer transfer
Conventional epitaxy is of limited application, but by placing a monolayer of graphene between the substrate and the so-called epilayer grown on top, its scope can be substantially extended.
Yunjo Kim, Samuel S. Cruz, Kyusang Lee et al.
Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves
Surface water and its drainage across the surface of Antarctic ice is shown to be widespread, large-scale and to have persisted for decades.
Jonathan Kingslake, Jeremy C. Ely, Indrani Das et al.
Drivers of salamander extirpation mediated by Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans
The authors investigated the disease ecology of the fast-spreading fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in fire salamanders; on the basis of their research, they call for Europe-wide monitoring systems and conservation strategies for threatened species.
Gwij Stegen, Frank Pasmans, Benedikt R. Schmidt et al.
Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus
Analysis of calcified dental plaque (calculus) specimens from Neanderthals shows marked regional differences in diet and microbiota and evidence of self-medication in one individual, and identifies prevalent microorganisms and their divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans.
Laura S. Weyrich, Sebastian Duchene, Julien Soubrier et al.
Therapeutic reduction of ataxin-2 extends lifespan and reduces pathology in TDP-43 mice
A decrease in ataxin-2 levels leads to a reduction in the aggregation of TDP-43, markedly increased lifespan and improved motor function in a transgenic mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathy.
Lindsay A. Becker, Brenda Huang, Gregor Bieri et al.
Modulating the therapeutic response of tumours to dietary serine and glycine starvation
Dependence on exogenous serine means that tumour growth is restricted in mice on a low-serine diet; this effect on tumour growth can be amplified by antagonizing the antioxidant response.
Oliver D. K. Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C. Cheung et al.
Rad51-mediated double-strand break repair and mismatch correction of divergent substrates
DNA repair by break-induced replication begins with the Rad51-mediated invasion of single-stranded DNA into a double-stranded donor template; this study shows that successful recombination between highly mismatched substrates can occur when only five consecutive bases can be paired and that mismatch correction is most efficient near the invading end of the recipient strand.
Ranjith Anand, Annette Beach, Kevin Li et al.

npj Climate and Atmospheric Science: open for submissions
An open access, online-only journal providing researchers, policy makers and the public with the latest research on weather and climate, publishing high-quality papers that focus on topics including climate dynamics, climate variability, weather and climate prediction, climate change, weather extremes, atmospheric composition including aerosols, the hydrological cycle and atmosphere-ocean interactions.
Careers & Jobs
Retirement: Dollars and sense
Eryn Brown
Career Briefs  
Mental health: Degree and depression
Running safety tips for humans
Exercise caution.
Marissa Lingen
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