Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Nature contents: 13 April 2017

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Nature Volume 544 Issue 7649
This Week  
Nature supports the March for Science
Critics of the March for Science have a point. But those scientists who will protest and speak up globally for research have the chance to make a greater one.
Natural-history collections face fight for survival
Regional hubs offer lifeline to museums’ precious plant and animal specimens.
The 100-year-old challenge to Darwin that is still making waves in research
On Growth and Form showed how physical and mathematical forces affect natural selection.

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World View  
Cutting collaborations will not put ‘America first’
Supporting scientists in the developing world is in the United States’ self-interest, argues Wasim Maziak.
Seven Days  
Hungary's protests, coral bleaching and a neutrino anomaly
The week in science: 7–13 April 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
Muons’ big moment could fuel new physics
Fermilab experiment to measure muon magnetic moment more precisely might reveal unknown virtual particles.
Elizabeth Gibney
  Mobile-phone signals bolster street-level rain forecasts
Real-time analysis of wireless communications data could improve weather forecasts around the world.
Jeff Tollefson
‘Young poo’ makes aged fish live longer
The gut microbes of young killifish can extend the lifespans of older fish – hinting at the microbiome’s role in ageing.
Ewen Callaway
  Immigration crackdowns damage health — even for unborn children
The lasting effects of stress and fear of deportation are beginning to emerge.
Sara Reardon
Saturn spacecraft begins science swan-song
NASA’s Cassini probe will go where no spacecraft has gone before — between a planet and its rings.
Alexandra Witze
Antarctica’s sleeping ice giant could wake soon
The massive East Antarctic Ice Sheet looks stable from above — but it’s a dangerously different story below.
Jane Qiu
Nature Podcast: 13 April 2017
This week, politician scientists, human genetic ‘knockouts’ and East Antarctica’s instability.
Make perovskite solar cells stable
Stop these promising photovoltaics from degrading, urge Yang Yang and Jingbi You.
Yang Yang, Jingbi You
Books and Arts  
Environment: Hero of local conservation
Stuart Pimm learns about the man behind the world's largest conservation body.
Stuart Pimm
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Japan: Unjustified killing of badgers in Kyushu
Yayoi Kaneko, Christina D. Buesching, Chris Newman
  Artificial intelligence: Outsmart supply dips in renewable energy
Valentin Robu, David Flynn
Training: Plug gap in essential bioinformatics skills
Michelle D. Brazas, Sarah Blackford, Teresa K. Attwood
  Human studies: Reforms overdue for ethical reviewing
Lionel Page, Katie Page
George Andrew Olah (1927–2017)
Hydrocarbon chemist whose work changed fuels, materials and drugs.
Thomas Mathew
Same: A measure of molecular muscle
Innovative tools are revealing the forces that guide cellular processes such as embryonic development and tumour growth.
Michael Eisenstein
Particle physics: Strangeness in the proton
The proton can contain pairs of elementary particles known as strange quarks. The contribution of these particles to the proton's electric-charge distribution and magnetic moment has been determined.
Microbiology: Gut microbes augment neurodegeneration
Bacterial residents of the human body often provide beneficial effects, but some can be harmful. The action of gut bacteria has been found to be tightly linked to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Neurodegenerative disease: Two–for–one on potential therapies
Molecules that inhibit the synthesis of the ataxin 2 protein can ameliorate the effects of two neurodegenerative diseases in mouse models, raising hopes for the success of this approach in clinical trials.
Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic
Frequent dispersal and short-lived local transmission clusters fuelled the 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.
T-cell invigoration to tumour burden ratio associated with anti-PD-1 response
The clinical benefit of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is dependent on the extent to which exhausted CD8 T cells are reinvigorated in relation to the tumour burden of the patient.
Observation of the frozen charge of a Kondo resonance
In a quantum dot in the Kondo regime, electrical charges are effectively frozen, but the quantum dot remains electrically conducting owing to strong electron–electron correlations.
Ultrastrong steel via minimal lattice misfit and high-density nanoprecipitation
A method of producing superstrong yet ductile steels using cheaper and lighter alloying elements is described, based on minimization of the lattice misfit to achieve a maximal dispersion of nanoprecipitates, leading to ultimate precipitation strengthening.
The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan
The archosaur species Teleocrater rhadinus, part of the new clade Aphanosauria, is an example of the earliest divergence of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), the lineage that contains dinosaurs (including birds).
Therapeutic reduction of ataxin-2 extends lifespan and reduces pathology in TDP-43 mice
A decrease in ataxin-2 levels leads to a reduction in the aggregation of TDP-43, markedly increased lifespan and improved motor function in a transgenic mouse model of TDP-43 proteinopathy.
Antisense oligonucleotide therapy for spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
Antisense oligonucleotides against ATXN2 improved motor neuron function and restored firing frequency in cerebellar Purkinje cells in mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.
Rad51-mediated double-strand break repair and mismatch correction of divergent substrates
DNA repair by break-induced replication begins with the Rad51-mediated invasion of single-stranded DNA into a double-stranded donor template; this study shows that successful recombination between highly mismatched substrates can occur when only five consecutive bases can be paired and that mismatch correction is most efficient near the invading end of the recipient strand.
High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria
Oral-vaccine-induced IgA cross-links growing bacteria into clonal aggregates, inhibiting pathogenesis, adaption and the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes.
Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures
News and Views  
Biological physics: Liquid crystals in living tissue
Linda S. Hirst, Guillaume Charras
Marine conservation: The race to fish slows down
Andrew A. Rosenberg
Materials Science: Screen printing of 2D semiconductors
Young Duck Kim, James Hone

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Biocontrol: Crown-of-thorns no more
Mónica Medina
50 & 100 Years Ago
Developmental biology: How the lizard gets its speckled scales
Leah Edelstein-Keshet
Biomedicine: Human genes lost and their functions found
Robert M. Plenge
A living mesoscopic cellular automaton made of skin scales
A mesoscopic cellular automaton arising from a microscopic reaction–diffusion system as a function of skin thickness is observed in ocellated lizards, showing that cellular automata are not merely abstract computational systems, but can directly correspond to processes generated by biological evolution.
Liana Manukyan, Sophie A. Montandon, Anamarija Fofonjka et al.
Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia
Analysis of Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genomes shows geographic patterns and deep splits across the major haplogroups that indicate a single, rapid migration along the coasts around 49–45 ka, followed by longstanding persistence in discrete geographic areas.
Ray Tobler, Adam Rohrlach, Julien Soubrier et al.
Mono-unsaturated fatty acids link H3K4me3 modifiers to C. elegans lifespan
A deficiency in H3K4me3 methyltransferase causes accumulation of mono-unsaturated fatty acids, which is important for lifespan extension in C. elegans and could be relevant in mammals.
Shuo Han, Elizabeth A. Schroeder, Carlos G. Silva-García et al.
In-crystal reaction cycle of a toluene-bound diiron hydroxylase
Crystal structures and DFT calculations suggest a possible mechanism for diiron enzyme arene hydroxylation.
Justin F. Acheson, Lucas J. Bailey, Thomas C. Brunold et al.
Mediator structure and rearrangements required for holoenzyme formation
Cryo-electron microscopy maps of the fission yeast Mediator complex and of a Mediator–RNA polymerase II holoenzyme reveal how changes in the Med14 subunit enable large-scale rearrangements of the Mediator structure that are essential for holoenzyme formation.
Kuang-Lei Tsai, Xiaodi Yu, Sneha Gopalan et al.
Star formation inside a galactic outflow
Star formation at a rate of more than 15 solar masses a year has been observed inside a massive outflow of gas from a nearby galaxy; this could also be happening inside other galactic outflows.
R. Maiolino, H. R. Russell, A. C. Fabian et al.
Optically excited structural transition in atomic wires on surfaces at the quantum limit
A structural transition in an atomic indium wire on a silicon substrate proceeds as fast as the indium atom vibrations and is facilitated by strong In–Si interface bonds.
T. Frigge, B. Hafke, T. Witte et al.
Topological defects in epithelia govern cell death and extrusion
By modelling epithelial cells as active nematic liquid crystals, stresses induced at the sites of topological defects are found to be the primary drivers of extrusion and cell death.
Thuan Beng Saw, Amin Doostmohammadi, Vincent Nier et al.
Finding pathways to national-scale land-sector sustainability
Options for achieving multiple sustainability goals in land systems are limited, and integrated national-scale analyses are needed across the broader environment and economy to prioritize efficient sustainability interventions.
Lei Gao, Brett A. Bryan
Catch shares slow the race to fish
A large-scale treatment–control meta-analysis of US fisheries provides evidence that the implementation of catch shares extend fishing seasons by slowing the race to fish.
Anna M. Birkenbach, David J. Kaczan, Martin D. Smith
Evolutionary dynamics on any population structure
The authors derive a condition for how natural selection chooses between two competing strategies on any graph for weak selection, elucidating which population structures promote certain behaviours, such as cooperation.
Benjamin Allen, Gabor Lippner, Yu-Ting Chen et al.
The crown-of-thorns starfish genome as a guide for biocontrol of this coral reef pest OPEN
Genome sequencing and proteomic analyses of the crown-of-thorns starfish identify species-specific secreted factors that are associated with aggregating starfish and might be useful for biocontrol strategies.
Michael R. Hall, Kevin M. Kocot, Kenneth W. Baughman et al.
Human knockouts and phenotypic analysis in a cohort with a high rate of consanguinity
By sequencing the exomes of 10,503 individuals living in Pakistan, the authors identify rare predicted loss-of-function mutations that are estimated to knock out genes and correlate these mutations with a broad range of phenotypes, providing a framework for a human knockout project.
Danish Saleheen, Pradeep Natarajan, Irina M. Armean et al.
Re-evaluation of learned information in Drosophila
Depending on prediction accuracy at the time of memory recall, specific mushroom body output neurons drive different combinations of dopaminergic neurons to extinguish or reconsolidate appetitive memory in Drosophila.
Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni et al.
Myt1l safeguards neuronal identity by actively repressing many non-neuronal fates
The neuron-specific transcription factor Myt1l represses many somatic lineage programs, but not the neuronal lineage program, to both induce and maintain neuronal identity.
Moritz Mall, Michael S. Kareta, Soham Chanda et al.
Mutual regulation of tumour vessel normalization and immunostimulatory reprogramming
The cross-talk between immune cells and blood vessel endothelial cells promotes pericyte coverage and decreases hypoxia in mouse tumour models, and correlative evidence suggests that these processes influence cancer prognosis in humans.
Lin Tian, Amit Goldstein, Hai Wang et al.

npj 2D Materials and Applications is an online-only, open access journal that aims to become a top-tier interdisciplinary platform for scientists to share research on 2D materials and their applications. Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, npj 2D Materials and Applications is published in partnership with FCT NOVA, Lisbon, with the support of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS). The journal is now open for submissions.
Careers & Jobs
Politics: Candidate science
Virginia Gewin
Turning point: Marching for facts
Virginia Gewin
Shadow Station
All the time in the Universe.
Caroline M. Yoachim
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