Particle physics: Strangeness in the proton The proton can contain pairs of elementary particles known as strange quarks. The contribution of these particles to the proton's electric-charge distribution and magnetic moment has been determined.
Microbiology: Gut microbes augment neurodegeneration Bacterial residents of the human body often provide beneficial effects, but some can be harmful. The action of gut bacteria has been found to be tightly linked to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
Rad51-mediated double-strand break repair and mismatch correction of divergent substrates DNA repair by break-induced replication begins with the Rad51-mediated invasion of single-stranded DNA into a double-stranded donor template; this study shows that successful recombination between highly mismatched substrates can occur when only five consecutive bases can be paired and that mismatch correction is most efficient near the invading end of the recipient strand.
A living mesoscopic cellular automaton made of skin scales A mesoscopic cellular automaton arising from a microscopic reaction–diffusion system as a function of skin thickness is observed in ocellated lizards, showing that cellular automata are not merely abstract computational systems, but can directly correspond to processes generated by biological evolution. Liana Manukyan, Sophie A. Montandon, Anamarija Fofonjka et al.
Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia Analysis of Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genomes shows geographic patterns and deep splits across the major haplogroups that indicate a single, rapid migration along the coasts around 49–45 ka, followed by longstanding persistence in discrete geographic areas. Ray Tobler, Adam Rohrlach, Julien Soubrier et al.
Mediator structure and rearrangements required for holoenzyme formation Cryo-electron microscopy maps of the fission yeast Mediator complex and of a Mediator–RNA polymerase II holoenzyme reveal how changes in the Med14 subunit enable large-scale rearrangements of the Mediator structure that are essential for holoenzyme formation. Kuang-Lei Tsai, Xiaodi Yu, Sneha Gopalan et al.
Star formation inside a galactic outflow Star formation at a rate of more than 15 solar masses a year has been observed inside a massive outflow of gas from a nearby galaxy; this could also be happening inside other galactic outflows. R. Maiolino, H. R. Russell, A. C. Fabian et al.
Finding pathways to national-scale land-sector sustainability Options for achieving multiple sustainability goals in land systems are limited, and integrated national-scale analyses are needed across the broader environment and economy to prioritize efficient sustainability interventions. Lei Gao, Brett A. Bryan
Catch shares slow the race to fish A large-scale treatment–control meta-analysis of US fisheries provides evidence that the implementation of catch shares extend fishing seasons by slowing the race to fish. Anna M. Birkenbach, David J. Kaczan, Martin D. Smith
Evolutionary dynamics on any population structure The authors derive a condition for how natural selection chooses between two competing strategies on any graph for weak selection, elucidating which population structures promote certain behaviours, such as cooperation. Benjamin Allen, Gabor Lippner, Yu-Ting Chen et al.
Human knockouts and phenotypic analysis in a cohort with a high rate of consanguinity By sequencing the exomes of 10,503 individuals living in Pakistan, the authors identify rare predicted loss-of-function mutations that are estimated to knock out genes and correlate these mutations with a broad range of phenotypes, providing a framework for a human knockout project. Danish Saleheen, Pradeep Natarajan, Irina M. Armean et al.
Re-evaluation of learned information in Drosophila Depending on prediction accuracy at the time of memory recall, specific mushroom body output neurons drive different combinations of dopaminergic neurons to extinguish or reconsolidate appetitive memory in Drosophila. Johannes Felsenberg, Oliver Barnstedt, Paola Cognigni et al.
npj 2D Materials and Applications is an online-only, open access journal that aims to become a top-tier interdisciplinary platform for scientists to share research on 2D materials and their applications. Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, npj 2D Materials and Applications is published in partnership with FCT NOVA, Lisbon, with the support of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS). The journal is now open for submissions.
University of Calgary - Cumming School of Medicine
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