For certain infections, faecal transplants have resulted in remarkable recoveries. Will the same ever be true for people with IBD? It's a condition on the rise in Asia, but why? Follow those trying to find out, and learn how our environments influence IBD in this Outlook.
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Some argue that health-related behaviours, such as obesity, are contagious, but empirical evidence of health contagion remains inconclusive. Here, using a large scale quasi-experiment in a global network of runners, Aral and Nicolaides show that this type of contagion exists in fitness behaviours.
John C. Fyfe, Chris Derksen, Lawrence Mudryk, Gregory M. Flato, Benjamin D. Santer, Neil C. Swart, Noah P. Molotch, Xuebin Zhang, Hui Wan, Vivek K. Arora, John Scinocca and Yanjun Jiao
Mountain snowpack in the western United States has declined over the past three decades. Fyfe et al. show that this trend cannot be explained by natural variability alone and show that under a business-as-usual scenario a further loss of up to 60% in mountain snowpack is projected in the coming three decades.
Groups of animals tend to solve tasks better than individuals, but it is unclear whether such socially-derived knowledge accumulates over time. Sasaki and Biro demonstrate that homing pigeon flocks progressively improve the efficiency of their routes by culturally accumulating knowledge across generations.
Alexandre Beautrait, Justine S. Paradis, Brandon Zimmerman, Jenna Giubilaro, Ljiljana Nikolajev, Sylvain Armando, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Lama Yamani, Yoon Namkung, Franziska M. Heydenreich, Etienne Khoury, Martin Audet, Philippe P. Roux, Dmitry B. Veprintsev, Stéphane A. Laporte and Michel Bouvier
Beta-arrestins play central roles in the mechanisms regulating GPCR signalling and trafficking. Here the authors identify a selective inhibitor of the interaction between β-arrestin and the β2-adaptin subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, which they use to dissect the role of the β-arrestin/β2-adaptin interaction in GPCR signalling.
Xiaohong Zhao, Tint Lwin, Ariosto Silva, Bijal Shah, Jiangchuan Tao, Bin Fang, Liang Zhang, Kai Fu, Chengfeng Bi, Jiannong Li, Huijuan Jiang, Mark B. Meads, Timothy Jacobson, Maria Silva, Allison Distler, Lancia Darville, Ling Zhang, Ying Han, Dmitri Rebatchouk, Maurizio Di Liberto et al.
Ibrutinib has demonstrated high response rates in B-cell lymphomas but a lot of ibrutinib-treated patients relapse with resistance. This study unified TME-mediated de novo and acquired drug resistance through B-cell receptor signalling and PI3K-AKT-mTOR axis and provides a combination therapeutic strategy against B-cell malignancies.
Gyung-Min Choi, André Schleife and David G. Cahill
Optical switching of ferromagnets has attracted interest for use in ultrafast spintronics but the physical origin of the effect remains unclear. Here the authors determine the contributions of two proposed mechanisms, the inverse Faraday effect and optical spin-transfer torque.
HaoRan Tang, Leo Leung, Grazia Saturno, Amaya Viros, Duncan Smith, Gianpiero Di Leva, Eamonn Morrison, Dan Niculescu-Duvaz, Filipa Lopes, Louise Johnson, Nathalie Dhomen, Caroline Springer and Richard Marais
Lysyl oxidase is able to remodel the extracellular matrix and its expression correlates with poor prognosis. Here the authors show that this protein modulates trapping of the epidermal growth factor receptor at the cell surface, causing persistent signalling activation and tumour progression.
Jaime García-Prieto, Rocío Villena-Gutiérrez, Mónica Gómez, Esther Bernardo, Andrés Pun-García, Inés García-Lunar, Georgiana Crainiciuc, Rodrigo Fernández-Jiménez, Vinatha Sreeramkumar, Rafael Bourio-Martínez, José M García-Ruiz, Alfonso Serrano del Valle, David Sanz-Rosa, Gonzalo Pizarro, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Andrés Hidalgo, Valentín Fuster and Borja Ibanez
Metoprolol is a selective β1 adrenergic receptor blocker that reduces cardiac infarct size and improves cardiac function. The drug is believed to act on cardiomyocytes; however, here the authors show that metoprolol exerts its beneficial effect on infarcted heart by targeting neutrophils and altering their function and interaction with platelets.
Xiang Wu, Jung-Fu Lin, Pamela Kaercher, Zhu Mao, Jin Liu, Hans-Rudolf Wenk and Vitali B. Prakapenka
The source of the anisotropic layer (D'' layer) at the bottom of the lower mantle remains unclear. Here, using high pressure and temperature experiments, the authors find that seismic anisotropy observed at the D'' layer is caused by 50% deformation of the minerals post-perovskite and ferropericlase.
Wenge Jiang, Michael S. Pacella, Dimitra Athanasiadou, Valentin Nelea, Hojatollah Vali, Robert M. Hazen, Jeffrey J. Gray and Marc D. McKee
Chiral structures are formed in numerous processes including biomineralization of calcium carbonate. Here, the authors demonstrate that the chiral, hierarchically-organized architecture of the calcium carbonate mineral, vaterite, can be controlled simply by the addition of chiral acidic amino acids.
Shaul Yogev, Celine I. Maeder, Roshni Cooper, Mark Horowitz, Adam G. Hendricks and Kang Shen
Microtubule dynamics are essential for axonal transport. In C. elegans, the authors show that dynein heavy chain regulates the spatial distribution of dendritic microtubules which ensures correct transport progression.
Albert C. Aragonès, Nadim Darwish, Simone Ciampi, Fausto Sanz, J. Justin Gooding and Ismael Díez-Pérez
The next level of miniaturization of electronic circuits calls for a connection between current single-molecule and traditional semiconductor processing technologies. Here, the authors show a method to prepare metal/molecule/silicon diodes that present high current rectification ratios exceeding 4,000.
Seung Ho Lee, Young Bin Lee, Byung Hwi Kim, Cheol Lee, Young Min Cho, Se-Na Kim, Chun Gwon Park, Yong-Chan Cho and Young Bin Choy
Implantable insulin delivery devices can make a significant difference in the lives of patients although they are limited by the duration of their battery life, often requiring replacement. Here, the authors developed an implantable battery-less insulin delivery device with noninvasive actuation.
Ilya Razdolski, Alexandr Alekhin, Nikita Ilin, Jan P. Meyburg, Vladimir Roddatis, Detlef Diesing, Uwe Bovensiepen and Alexey Melnikov
Fundamental understanding of ultrafast spin dynamics is crucial for spintronics applications. Here the authors demonstrate an ultrafast technique to explore the inhomogeneous THz spin dynamics in Fe/Au/Fe multilayers triggered by spin transfer torque.
S. Ghannadzadeh, S. Licciardello, S. Arsenijević, P. Robinson, H. Takatsu, M. I. Katsnelson and N. E. Hussey
Incoherent transport is an important feature of many anisotropic quantum materials but often its origin is not well understood. Here, the authors show that in a layered quantum magnet, incoherence is driven by the interaction of electrons with spin fluctuations after the melting of magnetic order.
Marc K. Etherington, Flavio Franchello, Jamie Gibson, Thomas Northey, Jose Santos, Jonathan S. Ward, Heather F. Higginbotham, Przemyslaw Data, Aleksandra Kurowska, Paloma Lays Dos Santos, David R. Graves, Andrei S. Batsanov, Fernando B. Dias, Martin R. Bryce, Thomas J. Penfold and Andrew P. Monkman
The search for brighter emitting materials is essential to the development of OLED devices. Etherington et al. show how the presence of two regioisomers of a donor-acceptor-donor thermally-activated delayed fluorescence molecule affects the device efficiency, with one acting as a triplet quencher.
Katrin Zimmermann, Anna Jordan, Frédéric Gay, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Zheng Han, Vincent Bouchiat, Hermann Sellier and Benjamin Sacépé
Quantum point contacts are gate-tunable constrictions allowing for control of charge carrier transmission in 2D electron gases. Here, the authors fabricate a hBN/graphene/hBN van der Waals heterojunction to enable quantum point contact devices in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes.
Eui Hyuk Kim, Sung Hwan Cho, Ju Han Lee, Beomjin Jeong, Richard Hahnkee Kim, Seunggun Yu, Tae-Woo Lee, Wooyoung Shim and Cheolmin Park
Kim et al. report a polymeric-based electroluminescent interactive display that actively detects and visualizes an external conductive object under an alternating current. Fingerprint visualization and dynamic monitoring of metallic liquid flow are demonstrated.
Colin E. Studds, Bruce E. Kendall, Nicholas J. Murray, Howard B. Wilson, Danny I. Rogers, Robert S. Clemens, Ken Gosbell, Chris J. Hassell, Rosalind Jessop, David S. Melville, David A. Milton, Clive D. T. Minton, Hugh P. Possingham, Adrian C. Riegen, Phil Straw, Eric J. Woehler and Richard A. Fuller
Stopover sites are crucial to migratory birds, but the influence of this habitat on population dynamics has not been quantified. Here, Studds et al. show that, among ten migratory species, the degree of reliance on disappearing stopover habitat in the Yellow Sea tidal flats predicts the extent of recent population declines.
Xiang Qin, Byung Ouk Park, Jiaying Liu, Bing Chen, Valerie Choesmel-Cadamuro, Karine Belguise, Won Do Heo and Xiaobo Wang
Pulsatile actomyosin contractility during tissue morphogenesis has been mainly studied in apical domains but less is known about the contribution of the basal domain. Here the authors show differential influence of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions in regulating oscillations and tissue elongation.
Brian Walsh, Philippe Ciais, Ivan A. Janssens, Josep Peñuelas, Keywan Riahi, Felicjan Rydzak, Detlef P. van Vuuren and Michael Obersteiner
COP21 led to a global commitment to decarbonization before 2100 to combat climate change, but leaves the timing and scale of mitigation efforts to individual countries. Here, the authors show that global carbon emissions need to peak within a decade to maintain realistic pathways for achieving the Paris Agreement.
R. Zhang, J. Waters, A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva
No superconductivity could so far be achieved in black phosphorus in its normal orthorhombic form. Here, the authors demonstrate that intercalation with alkali metals makes black phosphorus superconducting with intercalant-independent transition temperature and near-identical superconducting characteristics.
Pavan Nukala, Mingliang Ren, Rahul Agarwal, Jacob Berger, Gerui Liu, A. T. Charlie Johnson and Ritesh Agarwal
Polar metals such as GeTe could store information using electric domains but the high conductivity screens electric fields, preventing the use of usual domain control techniques. Here, the authors demonstrate that polar domains in GeTe can be manipulated using electrically generated heat shocks.
Giulio Guzzinati, Armand Béché, Hugo Lourenço-Martins, Jérôme Martin, Mathieu Kociak and Jo Verbeeck
The sign of the field in plasmonic excitations cannot be accessed by direct measurements. Here Guzzinati et al. overcome this limitation by shaping the wavefunction of an electron beam to match the symmetry of the plasmon’s charge symmetry, offering selective detection of specific plasmon modes.
Raimonds Meija, Stefano Signetti, Arnim Schuchardt, Kerstin Meurisch, Daria Smazna, Matthias Mecklenburg, Karl Schulte, Donats Erts, Oleg Lupan, Bodo Fiedler, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Rainer Adelung and Nicola M. Pugno
Aerographite is a highly porous and lightweight carbon material obtained from hollow tubular tetrapod building units. Here, the authors present a comprehensive investigation of tetrapod deformation mechanisms which are at the core of aerographite nanomechanical properties.
The relative roles of external forcing versus internal variability in the Barents Sea winter sea ice decline since 1979 remain unconstrained. Here, the authors show that enhanced Atlantic heat transport into the Barents Sea associated with regional internal variability may have played a leading role.
J. Tiira, E. Strambini, M. Amado, S. Roddaro, P. San-Jose, R. Aguado, F. S. Bergeret, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba and F. Giazotto
Physical details of a Josephson junction may drastically modify the properties of supercurrent. Here, the authors observe a colossal enhancement of the critical supercurrent in a Josephson junction subject to a perpendicular magnetic field, indicating topological phase transitions.
Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo, Zhiwen Wang, Xinhua Yang, Alexander Kozik, Siwaret Arikit, Chi Song, Liangfeng Xia, Lutz Froenicke, Dean O. Lavelle, María-José Truco, Rui Xia, Shilin Zhu, Chunyan Xu, Huaqin Xu, Xun Xu, Kyle Cox, Ian Korf, Blake C. Meyers and Richard W. Michelmore
Genome assembly for many plant species can be challenging due to large size and high repeat content. Here, the authors use in vitro proximity ligation to assemble the genome of lettuce, revealing a family-specific triplication event and providing a comprehensive reference genome for a member of the Compositae.
Qixun Shi, Tomas Javorskis, Karl-Erik Bergquist, Artūras Ulčinas, Gediminas Niaura, Ieva Matulaitienė, Edvinas Orentas and Kenneth Wärnmark
Hydrogen bonds are powerful supramolecular motifs, owing to their selective and dynamic nature. Here, the authors build orthogonal hydrogen-bonding sites into a single molecule, allowing it to form diverse hierarchical assemblies and exhibit self-sorting behaviour in response to certain stimuli.
Arja Ray, Oscar Lee, Zaw Win, Rachel M. Edwards, Patrick W. Alford, Deok-Ho Kim and Paolo P. Provenzano
Contact guidance on aligned substrates leads to directed cell migration through a poorly defined mechanism. Here the authors show that alignment of adhesion structures and F-actin generates anisotropic traction stress to drive directional migration, and cell-cell contact reduces force orientation and directional response.
Qiubo Zhang, Kuibo Yin, Hui Dong, Yilong Zhou, Xiaodong Tan, Kaihao Yu, Xiaohui Hu, Tao Xu, Chao Zhu, Weiwei Xia, Feng Xu, Haimei Zheng and Litao Sun
Cation exchange, traditionally driven by ion solvation or thermal activation, is a robust approach for preparing heterogeneous nanostructures but lacks selectivity for preparation of individual nanocrystals. Here, the authors report an electrically driven cation exchange reaction that enables them to fabricate individual nanocrystals with high selectivity.
Dirk Witthaut, Sandro Wimberger, Raffaella Burioni and Marc Timme
Collective phenomena in many-body systems include synchronization in classical and entanglement in quantum systems. Here the authors study isolated many-body quantum systems and demonstrate that synchronization emerges intrinsically, accompanied by the onset of quantum coherence and persistent entanglement.
Robyn M. Sutherland, Sarah L. Londrigan, Jamie L. Brady, Emma M. Carrington, Julia M. Marchingo, Susanne Heinzel, Philip D. Hodgkin, Kate L. Graham, Thomas W. Kay, Yifan Zhan and Andrew M. Lew
Professional antigen presenting cells (APC) are the major activator of T cells that then hone to sites of inflammation. Using islet cell grafts, here the authors show that parenchymal cells can present antigen to activate CD8+ T cells at inflammatory sites, coining this a ‘mezzanine response’ distinct from primary and secondary responses associated with professional APCs.
Jiao Deng, Haobo Li, Suheng Wang, Ding Ding, Mingshu Chen, Chuan Liu, Zhongqun Tian, K. S. Novoselov, Chao Ma, Dehui Deng and Xinhe Bao
The hydrogen evolution reaction is a complicated process involving liquid-solid-gas three-phase interface behaviour. Here, the authors report the multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam and demonstrate its high activity and stability for hydrogen evolution.
Zenggang Li, Andrei A. Ivanov, Rina Su, Valentina Gonzalez-Pecchi, Qi Qi, Songlin Liu, Philip Webber, Elizabeth McMillan, Lauren Rusnak, Cau Pham, Xiaoqian Chen, Xiulei Mo, Brian Revennaugh, Wei Zhou, Adam Marcus, Sahar Harati, Xiang Chen, Margaret A. Johns, Michael A. White, Carlos S. Moreno et al.
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