Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Nature Climate Change Contents: April 2017 Volume 7 Number 4 pp 229 - 304

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April 2017 Volume 7, Issue 4

Research Highlights
News and Views

Focus on marine iron cycling

Nature Geoscience presents a collection of articles that examine the modern marine iron cycle and assess how iron cycling has varied through time. 

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Expanding research views p229
Regions most affected by climate change are not always the areas that receive the most attention. Africa is one example of a region that highlights the need for research in more difficult locations.



Ice-free Arctic at 1.5 °C? pp230 - 231
James A. Screen and Daniel Williamson



The visual divide pp231 - 233
Alfons Maes
Climate change is a playground for visualization. Yet research and technological innovations in visual communication and data visualization do not account for a substantial part of the world's population: vulnerable audiences with low levels of literacy.

The food-energy-water nexus and urban complexity pp233 - 235
Patricia Romero-Lankao, Timon McPhearson and Debra J. Davidson
While tackling interdependencies among food, energy, and water security is promising, three fundamental challenges to effective operationalization need addressing: the feasibility of science-policy integration, cross-scale inequalities, and path-dependencies in infrastructure and socio-institutional practices.

Research Highlights


Hydrology: Under-estimated recharge | Climate Dynamics: Shifting ocean interactions | Public opinion: Indigenous beliefs | Agriculture: Mitigation through food

News and Views


Natural disasters: Cities build their vulnerability pp237 - 238
Bryan Jones
Tornadoes pose a significant threat across vast portions of the US. Now research suggests that growth in the human-built environment will be more influential than climate change in driving future disaster potential.

Atmospheric science: Warming boosts air pollution pp238 - 239
Renhe Zhang
Atmospheric conditions play an important role in driving severe air pollution events in Beijing, China. Now research finds that global warming will enhance weather conditions favouring such events, increasing the chances of severe winter-time haze in the future.
See also: Letter by Wenju Cai et al.

Climate variability: Natural causes of Arctic sea-ice loss pp239 - 241
Neil Swart
Arctic sea-ice cover has declined precipitously in recent decades. Now research suggests that a sizeable fraction of this observed historical decline could have been caused by internal climate variability rather than by human-induced warming.
See also: Article by Qinghua Ding et al.

Oceanography: Ocean acidification without borders pp241 - 242
Richard G. J. Bellerby
The marine carbonate system is changing as uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere causes ocean acidification. Now, analysis of repeat observations demonstrates that the rate and extent of Arctic Ocean acidification is enhanced through increased transport from the North Pacific.
See also: Letter by Di Qi et al.

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The role of CO2 capture and utilization in mitigating climate change pp243 - 249
Niall Mac Dowell, Paul S. Fennell, Nilay Shah and Geoffrey C. Maitland
This Perspective considers the potential mitigation contribution of carbon capture and utilization, such as chemical conversation or to enhance oil recovery. The authors find it will account for a small amount of the required total mitigation effort.

Climate change through a poverty lens pp250 - 256
Stephane Hallegatte and Julie Rozenberg
The economic impact of climate change has typically been considered at regional or national levels. This Perspective assesses impacts at household level to determine effects on poverty and the poor. It shows how rapid development could reduce these impacts.



Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change pp257 - 262
Wenju Cai, Ke Li, Hong Liao, Huijun Wang and Lixin Wu
Severe winter air pollution events, attributed to emissions from development, have increased in Beijing in recent decades. This study looks at how atmospheric conditions contribute and projects climate change will increase conditions favourable to such events.
See also: News and Views by Renhe Zhang

Towards a rain-dominated Arctic pp263 - 267
R. Bintanja and O. Andry
Arctic precipitation is projected to increase and this study shows that rainfall will become the dominant phase of precipitation, with a decrease in snowfall across all seasons.

The peak structure and future changes of the relationships between extreme precipitation and temperature pp268 - 274
Guiling Wang, Dagang Wang, Kevin E. Trenberth, Amir Erfanian, Miao Yu, Michael G. Bosilovich and Dana T. Parr
Extreme rainfall increases with temperature and this is predicted to continue in a future warmer climate. Whilst a downturn in rainfall scaling is observed at high temperatures in the present day, this does not imply an upper limit on rainfall extremes in the future.

The contribution of solar brightening to the US maize yield trend pp275 - 278
Matthijs Tollenaar, Jon Fridgen, Priyanka Tyagi, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr and Saratha Kumudini
Gains in maize yield from the US Corn Belt have been attributed to agricultural technologies. A study now shows that solar brightening was responsible for approximately 27% of yield growth from 1984 to 2013.

Elevated CO2 does not increase eucalypt forest productivity on a low-phosphorus soil pp279 - 282
David S. Ellsworth, Ian C. Anderson, Kristine Y. Crous, Julia Cooke, John E. Drake, Andrew N. Gherlenda, Teresa E. Gimeno, Catriona A. Macdonald, Belinda E. Medlyn, Jeff R. Powell, Mark G. Tjoelker and Peter B. Reich
Experimental evidence from a mature, phosphorous-limited, eucalypt forest finds that aboveground productivity was not significantly stimulated by elevated CO2. Findings suggest that this effect may be limited across much of the tropics.



A climate stress-test of the financial system pp283 - 288
Stefano Battiston, Antoine Mandel, Irene Monasterolo, Franziska Schütze and Gabriele Visentin
The financial system will be impacted by climate policies. Network analysis of the exposures of financial actors to climate-relevant sectors in the Euro Area shows early implementation of climate policy is needed to avoid adverse systemic consequences.

Influence of high-latitude atmospheric circulation changes on summertime Arctic sea ice pp289 - 295
Qinghua Ding, Axel Schweiger, Michelle L’Heureux, David S. Battisti, Stephen Po-Chedley, Nathaniel C. Johnson, Eduardo Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Kirstin Harnos, Qin Zhang, Ryan Eastman and Eric J. Steig
The Arctic is warming and sea ice is declining, but how the two link is unclear. This study shows changes in summertime atmospheric circulation and internal variability may have caused up to 60% of September sea-ice decline since 1979.
See also: News and Views by Neil Swart

Local temperature response to land cover and management change driven by non-radiative processes pp296 - 302
Ryan M. Bright, Edouard Davin, Thomas O’Halloran, Julia Pongratz, Kaiguang Zhao and Alessandro Cescatti
Remote sensing and in situ observations show that non-radiative mechanisms dominate the local climatic response to land cover and land management changes in most regions of the globe for 8 of 9 common land cover and management perturbations.



Erratum: Forecasting societies' adaptive capacities through a demographic metabolism model p303
Wolfgang Lutz and Raya Muttarak



Corrigendum: COP21 climate negotiators' responses to climate model forecasts p304
Valentina Bosetti, Elke Weber, Loïc Berger, David V. Budescu, Ning Liu and Massimo Tavoni

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