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Dark matter makes up most of the Universe, but very little is known about it. This joint Nature Astronomy and Nature Physics Insight explores the history and current status of dark matter searches in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology.
Neutrons for society, continued p199 doi:10.1038/nphys4071 The 50th anniversary of the Institut Laue-Langevin marks a time for celebration, and for reflection on the future of Europe's neutron-scattering landscape.
Deliberate exotic magnetism via frustration and topology pp200 - 203 Cristiano Nisoli, Vassilios Kapaklis and Peter Schiffer doi:10.1038/nphys4059 Introduced originally to mimic the unusual, frustrated behaviour of spin ice pyrochlores, artificial spin ice can be realized in odd, dedicated geometries that open the door to new manifestations of a higher level of frustration.
Optical dipole forces: Working together pp206 - 207 Clarice D. Aiello doi:10.1038/nphys3974 Strength lies in numbers and in teamwork: tens of thousands of artificial atoms tightly packed in a nanodiamond act cooperatively, enhancing the optical trapping forces beyond the expected classical bulk polarizability contribution.
Photoemission delay: The White Rabbit's clock pp207 - 208 Francesca Calegari doi:10.1038/nphys3973 Without a very precise timer one can never catch up with the electron released in photoemission. Attosecond streaking spectroscopy allows such a chronometer clock to be set to zero and reveals the role of electron correlations.
Spin-orbit torques: Going in the right direction pp209 - 210 Hidekazu Kurebayashi doi:10.1038/nphys3954 A connection between low crystalline symmetry and the allowed symmetries of the current-induced torques generated through the spin-orbit interaction opens up their use in devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Star formation: Cosmic feast pp210 - 211 Simone Scaringi doi:10.1038/nphys3964 Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.
Insight on Dark Matter Search for dark matter at colliders pp217 - 223 Oliver Buchmueller, Caterina Doglioni and Lian-Tao Wang doi:10.1038/nphys4054 Beyond the standard model, the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) hypothesis for dark matter is one of the most compelling, and the one being tested at the Large Hadron Collider.
Insight on Dark Matter Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays pp224 - 231 Jan Conrad and Olaf Reimer doi:10.1038/nphys4049 Dark matter could decay into conventional particles leaving behind specific signatures in the gamma rays and cosmic rays. Astronomical observations are used to search for these elusive dark matter footprints.
Insight on Dark Matter High-energy neutrino astrophysics pp232 - 238 Francis Halzen doi:10.1038/nphys3816 Neutrinos from deep space can be used as astronomical messengers, providing clues about the origin of cosmic rays or dark matter. The IceCube experiment is leading the way in neutrino astronomy.
Propagating compaction bands in confined compression of snow pp272 - 275 Thomas W. Barraclough, Jane R. Blackford, Stefan Liebenstein, Stefan Sandfeld, Tim J. Stratford et al. doi:10.1038/nphys3966 When deforming snow slowly, it resists. But when applying a deformation rapidly, it gives in more easily. Experiments now reveal propagating deformation bands and the localization of strain in compressed snow — both natural and artificial.
Attosecond correlation dynamics pp280 - 285 M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer et al. doi:10.1038/nphys3941 Photoemission is not a simple process and it is not instantaneous. Delays of a few attoseconds have now been measured in helium and it seems that they are partly due to electronic correlations.
High-resolution studies of the Majorana atomic chain platform pp286 - 291 Benjamin E. Feldman, Mallika T. Randeria, Jian Li, Sangjun Jeon, Yonglong Xie et al. doi:10.1038/nphys3947 High-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements show that chains of magnetic atoms on the surface of a superconductor provide a promising platform for realizing and manipulating Majorana fermion quasiparticles.
Light-controlled flows in active fluids pp306 - 312 Julien Dervaux, Marina Capellazzi Resta and Philippe Brunet doi:10.1038/nphys3926 The ability of phototactic microorganisms to move towards optimal light intensities is exploited to generate fluid flows on scales several orders larger than the swimmers themselves. These flows are shown to function as hydrodynamic tweezers.
Insight on Dark Matter A constant conflict p314 Barbara Ryden doi:10.1038/nphys4055 Narrowing down the value of the Hubble constant has been problematic — probably a manifestation of the dark-energy mystery, writes Barbara Ryden.
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