Friday, March 3, 2017

Nature Physics March Issue

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Nature Physics


March 2017 Volume 13, Issue 3

Research Highlights
News and Views
Progress Articles
Measure for Measure
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Dark Matter
Dark matter makes up most of the Universe, but very little is known about it. This joint Nature Astronomy and Nature Physics Insight explores the history and current status of dark matter searches in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology.

Dark Matter



Neutrons for society, continued   p199
The 50th anniversary of the Institut Laue-Langevin marks a time for celebration, and for reflection on the future of Europe's neutron-scattering landscape.



Deliberate exotic magnetism via frustration and topology   pp200 - 203
Cristiano Nisoli, Vassilios Kapaklis and Peter Schiffer
Introduced originally to mimic the unusual, frustrated behaviour of spin ice pyrochlores, artificial spin ice can be realized in odd, dedicated geometries that open the door to new manifestations of a higher level of frustration.



Babylonian puzzle   p204
Mark Buchanan

Research Highlights


Critical behaviour: Monkey business | X-ray bursts: Blame the gap | 2D materials: Amorphous and fluctuating | Quantum currency: No safe bets | Black holes: New horizons for magnonics

News and Views


Optical dipole forces: Working together   pp206 - 207
Clarice D. Aiello
Strength lies in numbers and in teamwork: tens of thousands of artificial atoms tightly packed in a nanodiamond act cooperatively, enhancing the optical trapping forces beyond the expected classical bulk polarizability contribution.

See also: Letter by Juan et al.

Photoemission delay: The White Rabbit's clock   pp207 - 208
Francesca Calegari
Without a very precise timer one can never catch up with the electron released in photoemission. Attosecond streaking spectroscopy allows such a chronometer clock to be set to zero and reveals the role of electron correlations.

See also: Article by Ossiander et al.

3D topological solitons: Out of the shadows   p208
Iulia Georgescu

Spin-orbit torques: Going in the right direction   pp209 - 210
Hidekazu Kurebayashi
A connection between low crystalline symmetry and the allowed symmetries of the current-induced torques generated through the spin-orbit interaction opens up their use in devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

See also: Article by MacNeill et al.

Star formation: Cosmic feast   pp210 - 211
Simone Scaringi
Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

See also: Letter by Caratti o Garatti et al.

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Progress Articles


Insight on Dark Matter
Current status of direct dark matter detection experiments   pp212 - 216
Jianglai Liu, Xun Chen and Xiangdong Ji
Direct dark matter searches are pushing the limits on the scattering of weakly interacting massive particles on normal matter so WIMPs are running out of places to hide.

Insight on Dark Matter
Search for dark matter at colliders   pp217 - 223
Oliver Buchmueller, Caterina Doglioni and Lian-Tao Wang
Beyond the standard model, the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) hypothesis for dark matter is one of the most compelling, and the one being tested at the Large Hadron Collider.



Insight on Dark Matter
Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays   pp224 - 231
Jan Conrad and Olaf Reimer
Dark matter could decay into conventional particles leaving behind specific signatures in the gamma rays and cosmic rays. Astronomical observations are used to search for these elusive dark matter footprints.

Insight on Dark Matter
High-energy neutrino astrophysics   pp232 - 238
Francis Halzen
Neutrinos from deep space can be used as astronomical messengers, providing clues about the origin of cosmic rays or dark matter. The IceCube experiment is leading the way in neutrino astronomy.



Cooperatively enhanced dipole forces from artificial atoms in trapped nanodiamonds   pp241 - 245
Mathieu L. Juan, Carlo Bradac, Benjamin Besga, Mattias Johnsson, Gavin Brennen et al.
The strength of optical trapping of a nanodiamond can be increased by cooperative effects between its numerous colour centres — or artificial atoms: an observation that brings together ideas from atom and nanoparticle trapping.

See also: News and Views by Aiello

Real-time confinement following a quantum quench to a non-integrable model   pp246 - 249
Marton Kormos, Mario Collura, Gabor Takács and Pasquale Calabrese
Confinement plays an important role in many-body physics from high energy to condensed matter. New results show that it strongly affects the non-equilibrium dynamics after a quantum quench with possible implications from ultracold atoms to QCD.

A global inversion-symmetry-broken phase inside the pseudogap region of YBa2Cu3Oy   pp250 - 254
L. Zhao, C. A. Belvin, R. Liang, D. A. Bonn, W. N. Hardy et al.
A spectroscopic study of the canonical cuprate materials YBCO reveals the point group symmetry of this system inside its pseudogap phase.

Fermi polaron-polaritons in charge-tunable atomically thin semiconductors   pp255 - 261
Meinrad Sidler, Patrick Back, Ovidiu Cotlet, Ajit Srivastava, Thomas Fink et al.
Cavity spectroscopy measurements elucidate the Fermi polaron nature of the optical excitations in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

High-harmonic generation from an atomically thin semiconductor   pp262 - 265
Hanzhe Liu, Yilei Li, Yong Sing You, Shambhu Ghimire, Tony F. Heinz et al.
Observations of high-harmonic generation from a single layer of a transition metal dichalcogenide opens the door to studying strong-field and attosecond phenomena in two-dimensional materials.

Schistosoma mansoni cercariae swim efficiently by exploiting an elastohydrodynamic coupling   pp266 - 271
Deepak Krishnamurthy, Georgios Katsikis, Arjun Bhargava and Manu Prakash
The success with which the parasite Schistosoma mansoni infects humans is due largely to its efficient motility. Experiments, modelling and robotics suggest that it swims via an elastohydrodynamic mechanism, rather than using active muscle control.

Propagating compaction bands in confined compression of snow   pp272 - 275
Thomas W. Barraclough, Jane R. Blackford, Stefan Liebenstein, Stefan Sandfeld, Tim J. Stratford et al.
When deforming snow slowly, it resists. But when applying a deformation rapidly, it gives in more easily. Experiments now reveal propagating deformation bands and the localization of strain in compressed snow — both natural and artificial.

Disk-mediated accretion burst in a high-mass young stellar object   pp276 - 279
A. Caratti o Garatti, B. Stecklum, R. Garcia Lopez, J. Eisloffel, T. P. Ray et al.
Observations show that, like light solar-mass stars, heavy stars also form through episodic disk-accretion; but faster, more energetic and emitting more light.

See also: News and Views by Scaringi



Attosecond correlation dynamics   pp280 - 285
M. Ossiander, F. Siegrist, V. Shirvanyan, R. Pazourek, A. Sommer et al.
Photoemission is not a simple process and it is not instantaneous. Delays of a few attoseconds have now been measured in helium and it seems that they are partly due to electronic correlations.

See also: News and Views by Calegari

High-resolution studies of the Majorana atomic chain platform   pp286 - 291
Benjamin E. Feldman, Mallika T. Randeria, Jian Li, Sangjun Jeon, Yonglong Xie et al.
High-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements show that chains of magnetic atoms on the surface of a superconductor provide a promising platform for realizing and manipulating Majorana fermion quasiparticles.

Long-range mutual synchronization of spin Hall nano-oscillators   pp292 - 299
A. A. Awad, P. Dürrenfeld, A. Houshang, M. Dvornik, E. Iacocca et al.
The synchronization of nine nanoconstriction spin Hall nano-oscillators brings spin-based oscillators closer to the power and noise requirements needed for practical applications.

Control of spin-orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers   pp300 - 305
D. MacNeill, G. M. Stiehl, M. H. D. Guimaraes, R. A. Buhrman, J. Park et al.
A link between crystalline symmetry and the allowed symmetries of spin–orbit torques provides a route for manipulating magnetic devices with perpendicular anisotropy.

See also: News and Views by Kurebayashi

Light-controlled flows in active fluids   pp306 - 312
Julien Dervaux, Marina Capellazzi Resta and Philippe Brunet
The ability of phototactic microorganisms to move towards optimal light intensities is exploited to generate fluid flows on scales several orders larger than the swimmers themselves. These flows are shown to function as hydrodynamic tweezers.

Measure for Measure


Insight on Dark Matter
A constant conflict   p314
Barbara Ryden
Narrowing down the value of the Hubble constant has been problematic — probably a manifestation of the dark-energy mystery, writes Barbara Ryden.

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