Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Nature contents: 16 March 2017

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Nature Volume 543 Issue 7645
This Week  
No time to chop funding for a pivotal climate programme
As the Great Barrier Reef suffers yet more potentially fatal damage, understanding Earth’s response to global warming is more crucial than ever.
Not just dwingey chimbles: dialects are alive and kicking
A British Library collection of regional words and phrases shows that language is still evolving.
Announcement: Transparency upgrade for Nature journals
The Nature journals continue journey towards greater rigour.

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World View  
How dare you call us diplomats
Amaya Moro-Martín is furious about Spanish government attempts to brand her and other exiled scientists as strategic partners.
Seven Days  
The week in science: 10–16 March 2017.
Research Highlights  
Materials: Bone-like steel stops cracks | Evolution: Ancient sea-star lenses found | Cancer immunotherapy: Drug success factor found | Climate change: Warming poses risk to US farming | Neuroscience: Super memory skills gained | Oceanography: Climate putting stress on oceans | Evolution: Beetles repeatedly evolved mimicry | Microbiome: Yeast worsens gut disorder | Climate change: Arctic set for rainy future
News in Focus
Earth’s lost history of planet-altering eruptions revealed
Geologists unearth signs of major volcanic events stretching back 3 billion years.
Alexandra Witze
  ‘Zombie’ patent fights over mutant mice return
University takes on US National Institutes of Health over animals used for Alzheimer’s research.
Heidi Ledford
First fluorescent frog found
A rare find in land animals reveals a new way to glow.
Anna Nowogrodzki
  Synthetic yeast chromosomes help probe mysteries of evolution
To work out how the yeast genome evolved, bioengineers are recreating it.
Amy Maxmen
Open-data contest unearths scientific gems — and controversy
Hundreds of researchers pick through clinical trial from a major blood-pressure study, to the dismay of some who collected the information.
Heidi Ledford
  Chinese mountain observatory to probe cosmic-ray origins
The massive project will intercept γ-ray showers in an unexplored energy band.
David Cyranoski
CRISPR, microbes and more are joining the war against crop killers
Agricultural scientists look beyond synthetic chemistry to battle pesticide resistance.
Brooke Borel
A makeover for the world's most hated crop
Oil palm has a reputation as an environmental menace. Can the latest genetic research change that?
Wudan Yan
Nature Podcast: 16 March 2017
This week, making plane fuel greener, yeast chromosomes synthesised from scratch, and seeking out hidden HIV.

Are we on the verge of a tipping point?

Professor Carlos Duarte is widely recognized as one of the world’s leading voices on the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems.

Discover why Professor Duarte believes we are on the verge of an ethical and sustainable agricultural revolution.

The business case for soil
Action on soil sustainability must move beyond the farm and into the boardroom, urges Jess Davies.
Jess Davies
Books and Arts  
Economics: The architecture of inequality
Aaron Reeves surveys five books on the defining social, political and economic issue of our times.
Aaron Reeves
Animal behaviour: World of webs
Philip Ball finds himself caught up in artworks woven by thousands of South American spiders.
Philip Ball
Health and environment: Add a tax to the EU agricultural policy
Frank Berendse
  Nature-based solutions: criteria
Christian Albert Leibniz, Joachim H. Spangenberg, Barbara Schröter Leibniz
Nature-based solutions: sustainable?
Thomas Schaubroeck
  Nature-based solutions: business
Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis, Dionyssia Kolokotsa, Steven A. Banwart
Churchill: Reason travels well through time
Timothy C. Hawes
Mildred S. Dresselhaus (1930–2017)
'Queen of carbon' and champion of women in science.
D. D. L. Chung
Ecology: A helping habitat for bumblebees
A study showing the effects of land-use quality on the productivity of bumblebee colonies highlights the importance of resource availability across space and time in promoting survival over generations.
Hiv: Finding latent needles in a haystack
Antiretroviral therapy can keep HIV at bay, but a few cells remain infected, so the disease cannot be cured. The discovery of a protein that marks out these infected cells will facilitate crucial studies of this latent viral reservoir.
Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity
In Arabidopsis thaliana, a genetic network that controls the phosphate stress response also influences the structure of the root microbiome community, even under non-stress phosphate conditions.
3D structures of individual mammalian genomes studied by single-cell Hi-C
A chromosome conformation capture method in which single cells are first imaged and then processed enables intact genome folding to be studied at a scale of 100 kb, validated, and analysed to generate hypotheses about 3D genomic interactions and organisation.
Autism gene Ube3a and seizures impair sociability by repressing VTA Cbln1
Increasing expression of the autism-associated gene Ube3a, either alone or in combination with seizures, not only impairs sociability in mice but also reduces expression of the synaptic organizer Cbln1 in the ventral tegmental area, thus weakening glutamatergic transmission.
Evidence for a Fe3+-rich pyrolitic lower mantle from (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite elasticity data
The authors report single-crystal elasticity data on (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite and show that its elastic behaviour is markedly different from that of the MgSiO3 endmember.
Energy transduction and alternating access of the mammalian ABC transporter P-glycoprotein
Double electron–electron resonance and computer simulations are used to describe conformational dynamics in the ATP-binding cassette transporter Pgp, which has an important role in the clearance of xenobiotics and cancer resistance to chemotherapy.
Phytoplankton can actively diversify their migration strategy in response to turbulent cues
Here, marine phytoplankton are shown to diversify their migratory strategy in response to turbulent cues through a rapid change in shape, thus challenging a fundamental paradigm in oceanography that phytoplankton are passively at the mercy of ocean turbulence.
Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets
A direct synthesis of high-aspect-ratio microporous zeolite nanosheets and the use of such nanosheets in separation membranes are described.
Early antibody therapy can induce long-lasting immunity to SHIV
Early administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies in a macaque SHIV infection model is associated with very low levels of persistent viraemia, which leads to the establishment of T-cell immunity and resultant long-term infection control.
RNA m6A methylation regulates the ultraviolet-induced DNA damage response
Methylation at the 6 position of adenosine (m6A) in RNA is rapidly and transiently induced at DNA damage sites in response to ultraviolet irradiation.
The true tempo of evolutionary radiation and decline revealed on the Hawaiian archipelago
A geologically informed model of the relationship between changing island area and species richness for the Hawaiian archipelago reveals the rates of species richness change for 14 endemic groups over their entire evolutionary histories without the need for fossil data or molecular phylogenies.
DND1 maintains germline stem cells via recruitment of the CCR4–NOT complex to target mRNAs
The vertebrate-conserved and germline-specific RNA-binding protein DND1 recruits the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex to destabilize its mRNA targets and is required for the maintenance of germline stem cells.
Bumblebee family lineage survival is enhanced in high-quality landscapes
Analysis of three wild-caught bumblebee species shows that family lineage survival and persistence is significantly increased between successive colony cycle stages with the proportion of high-value foraging habitat near the natal colony.
CD32a is a marker of a CD4 T-cell HIV reservoir harbouring replication-competent proviruses
CD32a expression is induced on the surface of HIV-1-infected quiescent CD4 T cells, and could thus be used as a biomarker to facilitate future study of how the virus persists in cellular reservoirs in infected hosts.
Transmission of cytokinesis forces via E-cadherin dilution and actomyosin flows
Erratum: Single-cell spatial reconstruction reveals global division of labour in the mammalian liver
Corrigendum: The histone H4 lysine 16 acetyltransferase hMOF regulates the outcome of autophagy
News and Views  
Biomedicine: An improved gel for detached retinas
Stanley Chang
Physiology: Bone-derived hormone suppresses appetite
Richard D. Palmiter
Astrophysics: Distant galaxies lack dark matter
Mark Swinbank
Seeking truth and pursuing innovation
Publishing Date: Mar 16th, 2016
50 & 100 Years Ago
Biogeochemistry: A plan for efficient use of nitrogen fertilizers
Xin Zhang
Ecology: Coral crisis captured
Anna Armstrong
Cell biology: Sort and destroy
Agnieszka Chacinska
Applied physics: 3D imaging for microchips
Ryan Wilkinson
Molecular biology: A hidden competitive advantage of disorder
P. Andrew Chong, Julie D. Forman-Kay
Orli Bahcall, Angela K. Eggleston, Sadaf Shadan
Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity
Cyril Zipfel, Giles E. D. Oldroyd
The plant perceptron connects environment to development
Ben Scheres, Wim H. van der Putten
Genomic innovation for crop improvement
Michael W. Bevan, Cristobal Uauy, Brande B. H. Wulff et al.
Quantum design of photosynthesis for bio-inspired solar-energy conversion
Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin, Rienk van Grondelle
Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance
A review of mineral exploration data and demand forecasts suggests that new international governance links are needed to ensure efficient and responsible future sourcing of minerals for sustainable development.
Saleem H. Ali, Damien Giurco, Nicholas Arndt et al.
MC4R-dependent suppression of appetite by bone-derived lipocalin 2
Osteoblast-derived LCN2 activates the melanocortin 4 receptor in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to suppress appetite, regulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
Ioanna Mosialou, Steven Shikhel, Jian-Min Liu et al.
Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception
Detection of weak electrical signals by skates relies on functional coupling of specific calcium and potassium channels, which mediates oscillations in electrosensory cell membrane voltage.
Nicholas W. Bellono, Duncan B. Leitch, David Julius
Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals
Aerial and underwater survey data combined with satellite-derived measurements of sea surface temperature over the past two decades show that multiple mass-bleaching events have expanded to encompass virtually all of the Great Barrier Reef.
Terry P. Hughes, James T. Kerry, Mariana Álvarez-Noriega et al.
Integrated genomic and molecular characterization of cervical cancer
This paper describes molecular subtypes of cervical cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma clusters defined by HPV status and molecular features, and distinct molecular pathways that are activated in cervical carcinomas caused by different somatic alterations and HPV types.
The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network
Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago
The rotation velocities in the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies are shown to decrease with disk radius, owing to high baryonic mass fractions and large velocity dispersions.
R. Genzel, N. M. Förster Schreiber, H. Übler et al.
High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits
A recently developed computational imaging technique, X-ray ptychographic tomography, is used to study integrated circuits, and a 3D image of a processor chip with a resolution of 14.6 nm is obtained.
Mirko Holler, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Esther H. R. Tsai et al.
Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions
Compared to using conventional jet fuel, the use of a biofuel blend reduces aircraft engine particle emissions at cruising altitude by about 50–70 per cent.
Richard H. Moore, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Bernadett Weinzierl et al.
Rheological separation of the megathrust seismogenic zone and episodic tremor and slip
A model of the conditions required for episodic tremor and accompanying slow slip to occur, near the megathrust seismogenic zone, reconciles seemingly contradictory observations.
Xiang Gao, Kelin Wang
Cytosolic proteostasis through importing of misfolded proteins into mitochondria
Proteins prone to aggregation in yeast are imported into mitochondria under stress conditions, suggesting that mitochondrial import and proteolysis may help to disaggregate proteins in the cytoplasm.
Linhao Ruan, Chuankai Zhou, Erli Jin et al.
Hypersensitive termination of the hypoxic response by a disordered protein switch
The intrinsically disordered CITED2 negative feedback regulator displaces the tightly bound hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α from their common target TAZ1 through the formation of an intermediate ternary complex and thereby attenuates the hypoxic response.
Rebecca B. Berlow, H. Jane Dyson, Peter E. Wright
Enzymatic mineralization generates ultrastiff and tough hydrogels with tunable mechanics
Synthetic hydrogels are here created by enzyme-induced mineralization of hydrogel networks, yielding materials that are tough yet impressively stiff, with calcium phosphate particles distributed homogeneously throughout the network.
Nicolas Rauner, Monika Meuris, Mirjana Zoric et al.
Paleoproterozoic sterol biosynthesis and the rise of oxygen
Steranes in ancient rocks have been used as ‘molecular fossils’, but the very earliest records of steranes have been shown to be contaminants; here, the presence of two key sterol biosynthesis enzymes in eukaryotes and bacteria suggests at least one gene transfer between bacteria and the earliest eukaryotes occurred some 2.3 billion years ago.
David A. Gold, Abigail Caron, Gregory P. Fournier et al.
Interplay between metabolic identities in the intestinal crypt supports stem cell function
The glycolytic activity of Paneth cells provides lactate, which is required by self-renewing intestinal stem cells for oxidative metabolism to activate p38 MAP kinase, ensuring regeneration of a mature crypt.
Maria J. Rodríguez-Colman, Matthias Schewe, Maaike Meerlo et al.
Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages
A selective class IIa histone deacetylase inhibitor induces anti-tumour immunity in a mouse model of mammary cancer through altered differentiation and recruitment of tumour-associated macrophages.
Jennifer L. Guerriero, Alaba Sotayo, Holly E. Ponichtera et al.
SZT2 dictates GATOR control of mTORC1 signalling
SZT2 recruits GATOR1 and GATOR2 to form a SZT2-orchestrated GATOR (SOG) complex at the lysosome that is essential for GATOR- and SESN-dependent nutrient sensing and mTORC1 regulation.
Min Peng, Na Yin, Ming O. Li
KICSTOR recruits GATOR1 to the lysosome and is necessary for nutrients to regulate mTORC1
A protein complex composed of KPTN, ITFG2, C12orf66 and SZT2, named KICSTOR, is necessary for lysosomal localization of GATOR1, interaction of GATOR1 with the Rag GTPases and GATOR2, and nutrient-dependent mTORC1 modulation.
Rachel L. Wolfson, Lynne Chantranupong, Gregory A. Wyant et al.
Corrigendum: Interaction between RasV12 and scribbled clones induces tumour growth and invasion
Ming Wu, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja, Tian Xu
Corrigendum: Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database
Stefan Schwietzke, Owen A. Sherwood, Lori M. P. Bruhwiler et al.
Careers & Jobs
Outside the lab: Field your A Team
Kendall Powell
Career Briefs  
Bias: Equality in research
Salaries: Gender pay disparity
Green boughs will cover thee
Sibling rivalry.
Sarah L. Byrne
  Science jobs of the week


Postdoc Position- Gene and Stem Cell Therapy Program


Centenary Institute 


Postdoctoral Research Associate Grade 7


University of Liverpool 


Two Postdoctoral Fellows


Cornell University 


Quality Assurance Associate II, South Africa


Hutchinson Centre Research Institute of South Africa 


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