Sometimes, a drug can remedy a chemical imbalance or surgery can repair a structural failure, but there are times when there is no substitute for replacing a part with human tissue or an entire organ. Rapid advances in regenerative medicine are bringing that possibility closer to reality.
Commercialize quantum technologies in five years Masoud Mohseni, Peter Read, Hartmut Neven and colleagues at Google's Quantum AI Laboratory set out investment opportunities on the road to the ultimate quantum machines. Masoud Mohseni, Peter Read, Hartmut Neven et al.
Show drugs work before selling them Regulation makes economic sense, argue Douglas Sipp, Christopher McCabe and John E. J. Rasko. Douglas Sipp, Christopher McCabe, John E. J. Rasko
Physiology: Bone-derived hormone suppresses appetite The glycoprotein lipocalin 2 is released from the bones of mice in a nutrient-dependent manner and binds to receptors in the brain to suppress appetite. This is the first example of bone-derived signals mediating hunger.
Paleoproterozoic sterol biosynthesis and the rise of oxygen Steranes in ancient rocks have been used as ‘molecular fossils’, but the very earliest records of steranes have been shown to be contaminants; here, the presence of two key sterol biosynthesis enzymes in eukaryotes and bacteria suggests at least one gene transfer between bacteria and the earliest eukaryotes occurred some 2.3 billion years ago.
Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads The authors use modelling to show that the network of trading routes known as the Silk Road emerged from hundreds of years of interactions between pastoralists as they moved their herds and flocks between higher and lower elevations in generally mountainous regions. Michael D. Frachetti, C. Evan Smith, Cynthia M. Traub et al.
Observation of a discrete time crystal A time crystal is a state of matter that shows robust oscillations in time, and although forbidden in equilibrium, a discrete time crystal has now been observed in a periodically driven quantum system. J. Zhang, P. W. Hess, A. Kyprianidis et al.
Transcription control by the ENL YEATS domain in acute leukaemia ENL, identified in a genome-scale loss-of-function screen as a crucial requirement for proliferation of acute leukaemia, is required for leukaemic gene expression, and its YEATS chromatin-reader domain is essential for leukaemic growth. Michael A. Erb, Thomas G. Scott, Bin E. Li et al.
Reading and writing single-atom magnets A two-bit magnetic memory is demonstrated, based on the magnetic states of individual holmium atoms, which are read and written in a scanning tunnelling microscope set-up and are stable over many hours. Fabian D. Natterer, Kai Yang, William Paul et al.
Earth’s first stable continents did not form by subduction Phase equilibria modelling of rocks from Western Australia confirms that the ancient continental crust could have formed by multistage melting of basaltic ‘parents’ along high geothermal gradients—a process incompatible with modern-style subduction. Tim E. Johnson, Michael Brown, Nicholas J. Gardiner et al.
Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination A single, low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of Zika virus protects both mice and rhesus macaques against infection and elicits rapid and long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses. Norbert Pardi, Michael J. Hogan, Rebecca S. Pelc et al.
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