Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Nature contents: 09 March 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 543 Issue 7644
This Week  
Rising to the challenge as US states turn the screw on science education
Researchers everywhere should pay more attention to how their subject is presented.
Dutch elections signal next test for rise in populism
Science is already losing out in the Netherlands.
Science journalism can be evidence-based, compelling — and wrong
A ranking of the best science-news outlets misjudges the relationship between research and reporting.
World View  
The perfect grant and how to get it
To help scientists build a career, Panayiota Poirazi says funders must earmark cash, reduce emphasis on collaboration and improve the application process.
Seven Days  
Coal use, mould money and Russia's new doping lab
The week in science: 3–9 March 2017.
Research Highlights  
Ecology: Early Amazonians left their mark | Cancer: Early tumour growth halted | Planetary science: Volcano gas makes worlds habitable | Genomics: Gene time bomb hurt mammoths | Technology: Insects inspire crash-proof drone | Network theory: How the Darknet defends itself | Cancer: Tumours live in diverse areas | Wildlife management: Fear used to manage pests | Artificial intelligence: Algorithm masters poker
News in Focus
How the fallout from Trump's travel ban is reshaping science
Researchers are cutting short travel, ending collaborations and rethinking their US ties.
Sara Reardon
  IBM's quantum cloud computer goes commercial
Company plans a bigger, better system aimed at creating a market for the still-immature technology.
Davide Castelvecchi
How rival bots battled their way to poker supremacy
Artificial-intelligence programs harness game-theory strategies and deep learning to defeat human professionals in two-player hold 'em.
Elizabeth Gibney
  Peer-review activists push psychology journals towards open data
Editor asked to resign from journal for saying he’ll review only papers whose data he can see.
Gautam Naik
Quantum microscope offers MRI for molecules
Diamond-based imaging system uses magnetic resonance of electrons to detect charged atoms and peer at chemical reactions in real time.
Sara Reardon
  Neanderthal tooth plaque hints at meals — and kisses
Analysis paints picture of diets, medicine and possible intimacy with humans.
Ewen Callaway
The quest to crystallize time
Bizarre forms of matter called time crystals were supposed to be physically impossible. Now they’re not.
Elizabeth Gibney
How Facebook, fake news and friends are warping your memory
Research on collective recall takes on new importance in a post-fact world.
Laura Spinney
Nature Podcast: 09 March 2017
This week, the earliest known life, Neanderthal self-medication, and data storage in a single atom.
Sometimes, a drug can remedy a chemical imbalance or surgery can repair a structural failure, but there are times when there is no substitute for replacing a part with human tissue or an entire organ. Rapid advances in regenerative medicine are bringing that possibility closer to reality.
Produced with support from
Commercialize quantum technologies in five years
Masoud Mohseni, Peter Read, Hartmut Neven and colleagues at Google's Quantum AI Laboratory set out investment opportunities on the road to the ultimate quantum machines.
Masoud Mohseni, Peter Read, Hartmut Neven et al.
Show drugs work before selling them
Regulation makes economic sense, argue Douglas Sipp, Christopher McCabe and John E. J. Rasko.
Douglas Sipp, Christopher McCabe, John E. J. Rasko
Books and Arts  
Military science: Masters of war
David Kaiser appraises a chronicle of the US agency that spawned technologies from drones to the Internet.
David Kaiser
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Synthetic biology: Enter the living machine
Herbert Sauro delves into a history of attempts to engineer life.
Herbert Sauro
Data management: A global coalition to sustain core data
Warwick P. Anderson
  Geography: Zealandia is not a continent
Elizabeth M. Dowding, Malte C. Ebach
Choice: Don't compare shopping to foraging
Stephen Rader
  Tribute: Vera Rubin and the dark matter problem
Albert Bosma
Legacy: Stiff shirts a source of inspiration
Eric Altschuler
Peter Mansfield (1933–2017)
Physicist who developed MRI, revolutionizing medicine.
Robert Turner
Physiology: Bone-derived hormone suppresses appetite
The glycoprotein lipocalin 2 is released from the bones of mice in a nutrient-dependent manner and binds to receptors in the brain to suppress appetite. This is the first example of bone-derived signals mediating hunger.
Molecular biology: A hidden competitive advantage of disorder
The cellular response to low oxygen levels is regulated by a process in which one protein is ousted from a binding site by another. It emerges that protein disorder allows the displacement to occur remarkably efficiently.
Molecular basis of ancestral vertebrate electroreception
Detection of weak electrical signals by skates relies on functional coupling of specific calcium and potassium channels, which mediates oscillations in electrosensory cell membrane voltage.
Complex multi-enhancer contacts captured by genome architecture mapping
A technique called genome architecture mapping (GAM) involves sequencing DNA from a large number of thin nuclear cryosections to develop a map of genome organization without the limitations of existing 3C-based methods.
Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia
Analysis of Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genomes shows geographic patterns and deep splits across the major haplogroups that indicate a single, rapid migration along the coasts around 49–45 ka, followed by longstanding persistence in discrete geographic areas.
MC4R-dependent suppression of appetite by bone-derived lipocalin 2
Osteoblast-derived LCN2 activates the melanocortin 4 receptor in neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to suppress appetite, regulates insulin secretion and increases insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.
Rheological separation of the megathrust seismogenic zone and episodic tremor and slip
A model of the conditions required for episodic tremor and accompanying slow slip to occur, near the megathrust seismogenic zone, reconciles seemingly contradictory observations.
Class IIa HDAC inhibition reduces breast tumours and metastases through anti-tumour macrophages
A selective class IIa histone deacetylase inhibitor induces anti-tumour immunity in a mouse model of mammary cancer through altered differentiation and recruitment of tumour-associated macrophages.
Paleoproterozoic sterol biosynthesis and the rise of oxygen
Steranes in ancient rocks have been used as ‘molecular fossils’, but the very earliest records of steranes have been shown to be contaminants; here, the presence of two key sterol biosynthesis enzymes in eukaryotes and bacteria suggests at least one gene transfer between bacteria and the earliest eukaryotes occurred some 2.3 billion years ago.
Remote site-selective C–H activation directed by a catalytic bifunctional template
A method is described for selectively activating remote C–H bonds in heterocycles by using a catalytic template that binds by reversible coordination instead of a covalent linkage, removing the need for specific functional groups on which to attach the template.
Interplay between metabolic identities in the intestinal crypt supports stem cell function
The glycolytic activity of Paneth cells provides lactate, which is required by self-renewing intestinal stem cells for oxidative metabolism to activate p38 MAP kinase, ensuring regeneration of a mature crypt.
Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus
Analysis of calcified dental plaque (calculus) specimens from Neanderthals shows marked regional differences in diet and microbiota and evidence of self-medication in one individual, and identifies prevalent microorganisms and their divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans.
KRAB zinc-finger proteins contribute to the evolution of gene regulatory networks
Genomic analyses of KRAB-containing zinc-finger proteins and the transposable elements to which they bind show that a co-evolutionary arms race was not the only driver of their evolution.
Hypersensitive termination of the hypoxic response by a disordered protein switch
The intrinsically disordered CITED2 negative feedback regulator displaces the tightly bound hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1α from their common target TAZ1 through the formation of an intermediate ternary complex and thereby attenuates the hypoxic response.
News and Views  
Cancer epigenetics: Reading the future of leukaemia
Alex W. Wilkinson, Or Gozani
Microbiology: Manipulation of the manipulators
William Sullivan, Scott L. O'Neill
Condensed-matter physics: Marching to a different quantum beat
Chetan Nayak
Archaeology: Digital maps illuminate ancient trade routes
Michael J. Harrower, Ioana A. Dumitru
Immunology: The chronicles of T-cell exhaustion
Robert A. Amezquita, Susan M. Kaech
Non-coding RNA: More uses for genomic junk
Karen Adelman, Emily Egan
50 & 100 Years Ago
Nanoscience: Single-atom data storage
Roberta Sessoli
Nomadic ecology shaped the highland geography of Asia’s Silk Roads
The authors use modelling to show that the network of trading routes known as the Silk Road emerged from hundreds of years of interactions between pastoralists as they moved their herds and flocks between higher and lower elevations in generally mountainous regions.
Michael D. Frachetti, C. Evan Smith, Cynthia M. Traub et al.
An atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5′ ends
A catalogue of human long non-coding RNA genes and their expression profiles across samples from major human primary cell types, tissues and cell lines.
Chung-Chau Hon, Jordan A. Ramilowski, Jayson Harshbarger et al.
Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells
Loss of autophagy increases the accumulation of mitochondria and the respiration status of haematopoietic stem cells, which perturbs their self-renewal and regeneration activities, and promotes cellular aging.
Theodore T. Ho, Matthew R. Warr, Emmalee R. Adelman et al.
TIRR regulates 53BP1 by masking its histone methyl-lysine binding function
A new protein, Tudor interacting repair regulator (TIRR), affects DNA repair by masking the chromatin interaction domain of 53BP1, thereby preventing its recruitment to double-strand breaks.
Pascal Drané, Marie-Eve Brault, Gaofeng Cui et al.
Observation of a discrete time crystal
A time crystal is a state of matter that shows robust oscillations in time, and although forbidden in equilibrium, a discrete time crystal has now been observed in a periodically driven quantum system.
J. Zhang, P. W. Hess, A. Kyprianidis et al.
Amplified stimulated emission in upconversion nanoparticles for super-resolution nanoscopy
Super-resolution optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion effects can now be performed at much lower light intensities than before by using bright upconversion emission from thulium-doped nanoparticles.
Yujia Liu, Yiqing Lu, Xusan Yang et al.
The molecular architecture of lamins in somatic cells
Cryo-electron tomography reveals a detailed view of the structural organization of the lamin meshwork within the lamina of the mammalian cell nucleus.
Yagmur Turgay, Matthias Eibauer, Anne E. Goldman et al.
Arrays of horizontal carbon nanotubes of controlled chirality grown using designed catalysts
Horizontal arrays of metallic or semiconducting carbon nanotubes with controlled chirality are grown from specially designed solid carbide catalysts.
Shuchen Zhang, Lixing Kang, Xiao Wang et al.
Transcription control by the ENL YEATS domain in acute leukaemia
ENL, identified in a genome-scale loss-of-function screen as a crucial requirement for proliferation of acute leukaemia, is required for leukaemic gene expression, and its YEATS chromatin-reader domain is essential for leukaemic growth.
Michael A. Erb, Thomas G. Scott, Bin E. Li et al.
Reconstitution of the tubular endoplasmic reticulum network with purified components
In the presence of GTP, a tubular endoplasmic reticulum network can be reconstituted with only two purified membrane proteins.
Robert E. Powers, Songyu Wang, Tina Y. Liu et al.
Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system
Discrete time-crystalline order is observed in a driven, disordered ensemble of about one million dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room temperature, and is shown to be very stable to perturbations.
Soonwon Choi, Joonhee Choi, Renate Landig et al.
Reading and writing single-atom magnets
A two-bit magnetic memory is demonstrated, based on the magnetic states of individual holmium atoms, which are read and written in a scanning tunnelling microscope set-up and are stable over many hours.
Fabian D. Natterer, Kai Yang, William Paul et al.
Earth’s first stable continents did not form by subduction
Phase equilibria modelling of rocks from Western Australia confirms that the ancient continental crust could have formed by multistage melting of basaltic ‘parents’ along high geothermal gradients—a process incompatible with modern-style subduction.
Tim E. Johnson, Michael Brown, Nicholas J. Gardiner et al.
Prophage WO genes recapitulate and enhance Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility
The discovery of two genes encoded by prophage WO from Wolbachia that functionally recapitulate and enhance cytoplasmic incompatibility in arthropods is the first inroad in solving the genetic basis of reproductive parasitism.
Daniel P. LePage, Jason A. Metcalf, Sarah R. Bordenstein et al.
Zika virus protection by a single low-dose nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccination
A single, low-dose intradermal immunization with lipid-nanoparticle-encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding the pre-membrane and envelope glycoproteins of Zika virus protects both mice and rhesus macaques against infection and elicits rapid and long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses.
Norbert Pardi, Michael J. Hogan, Rebecca S. Pelc et al.
Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism
FABP4 and FABP5 are important for the maintenance, longevity and function of CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells, which use oxidative metabolism of exogenous free fatty acids to persist in tissues and to mediate protective immunity.
Youdong Pan, Tian Tian, Chang Ook Park et al.
ENL links histone acetylation to oncogenic gene expression in acute myeloid leukaemia
The chromatin-reader protein ENL regulates oncogenic programs in acute myeloid leukaemia by binding via its YEATS domain to acetylated histones on the promoters of actively transcribed genes and recruiting the transcriptional machinery.
Liling Wan, Hong Wen, Yuanyuan Li et al.
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Careers & Jobs
Communication: Antisocial media
Amber Dance
Career Briefs  
Work–life balance: It's not all about the job
Transferable skills: STEM must branch out
A simple trick.
George Zebrowski, Charles Pellegrino
  Science jobs of the week


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