This year's Frontiers in Biology Insight features Reviews on how genomics is helping to uncover the peopling of the world, the interplay between morphogens and morphogenesis in determining organismal shape, the factors that influence the immune response to cancer, advances in single-cell genomics, and the effects of base modifications in messenger RNA.
Stephanie A. Henson, Claudie Beaulieu, Tatiana Ilyina, Jasmin G. John, Matthew Long, Roland Séférian, Jerry Tjiputra and Jorge L. Sarmiento
Climate change is expected to alter ocean ecology, and to potentially impact the ecosystem services provided to humankind. Here, the authors address how rapidly multiple factors that affect marine ecosystems are likely to develop in the future ocean and the remedial effects climate mitigation might have.
Bioaerosols may be generated when bubbles break on the surface of water, but it is unclear if this mechanism works with soil-based microbes. Here, the authors show that soil bacteria may be transferred from the soil surface and dispersed by raindrops.
Fangfei Ming, Daniel Mulugeta, Weisong Tu, Tyler S. Smith, Paolo Vilmercati, Geunseop Lee, Ying-Tzu Huang, Renee D. Diehl, Paul C. Snijders and Hanno H. Weitering
Broken symmetry phases may occur in 2D materials upon doping, yet introducing doping without inducing chemical disorder remains a challenge. Here, the authors use a modulation doping approach that unveils a hidden equilibrium phase involving spontaneous symmetry breaking in a hole-doped Sn bilayer.
Kizhakke M. Sathyan, Daniele Fachinetti and Daniel R. Foltz
Centromeres are chromosomal domains epigenetically specified by the presence of the CENP-A containing nucleosomes that control chromosome segregation. Here the authors show that α-amino trimethylation of CENP-A by the enzyme NRMT is required for centromere function, faithful chromosome segregation and cell survival.
Sara Nagelberg, Lauren D. Zarzar, Natalie Nicolas, Kaushikaram Subramanian, Julia A. Kalow, Vishnu Sresht, Daniel Blankschtein, George Barbastathis, Moritz Kreysing, Timothy M. Swager and Mathias Kolle
Micro-lenses are critical components in miniaturized optical devices for imaging and sensing, yet it is challenging to design them with on-demand variable optical properties. Here, Nagelberg et al. use bi-phase emulsion droplets to design reconfigurable micro-lenses with variable focal length.
Jennifer A. Bartell, Anna S. Blazier, Phillip Yen, Juliane C. Thøgersen, Lars Jelsbak, Joanna B. Goldberg and Jason A. Papin
Targeting virulence rather than bacterial growth is less likely to select for antibiotic resistance, but many possible targets function in both processes. Here, the authors reconstruct a genome-scale metabolic network of P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and update that of strain PAO1, which, together with mutant screens, enable them to identify genes uniquely critical for virulence factor production.
Yuan Gao, Zhaowei Wang, Qiang Hao, Weina Li, Yujin Xu, Juliang Zhang, Wangqian Zhang, Shuning Wang, Shuo Liu, Meng Li, Xiaochang Xue, Wei Zhang, Cun Zhang and Yingqi Zhang
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-negative cells, which are enriched during endocrine therapy, are associated with metastatic relapse of breast cancer. Here the authors show that ERα inhibits breast cancer metastasis and suggest that ERα suppresses the amoeboid-like migration of breast cancer cells by upregulating vinculin.
Jean-Marie Poumirol, Peter Q. Liu, Tetiana M. Slipchenko, Alexey Y. Nikitin, Luis Martin-Moreno, Jérôme Faist and Alexey B. Kuzmenko
Time reversal symmetry breaking gives rise to magnetic circular dichroism and Faraday rotation in graphene. The authors use terahertz magneto-electro-optical spectroscopy to demonstrate that electrostatic doping at a fixed magnetic field allows inversion of magnetic circular dichroism and Faraday rotation.
Maria B. Bagh, Shiyong Peng, Goutam Chandra, Zhongjian Zhang, Satya P. Singh, Nagarajan Pattabiraman, Aiyi Liu and Anil B. Mukherjee
Lysosomal acidification defects have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders. Bagh et al. show that the V0a1 subunit of v-ATPase requires palmitoylation for correct sorting and trafficking to the lysosome membrane, and that such a process is impaired in a mouse model of a devastating neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease, INCL.
Marinos Kallikourdis, Elisa Martini, Pierluigi Carullo, Claudia Sardi, Giuliana Roselli, Carolina M. Greco, Debora Vignali, Federica Riva, Anne Marie Ormbostad Berre, Tomas O. Stølen, Andrea Fumero, Giuseppe Faggian, Elisa Di Pasquale, Leonardo Elia, Cristiano Rumio, Daniele Catalucci, Roberto Papait and Gianluigi Condorelli
Abatacept is an FDA-approved drug used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Here the authors show that abatacept reduces cardiomyocyte death in a mouse model of heart failure by inhibiting activation and heart infiltration of T cells and macrophages, an effect mediated by IL-10, suggesting a potential therapy for heart failure.
Niraj K. Vishwakarma, Ajay K. Singh, Yoon-Ho Hwang, Dong-Hyeon Ko, Jin-Oh Kim, A. Giridhar Babu and Dong-Pyo Kim
Microfluidics is an attractive route for synthesis, but can suffer from poor reactivity with gaseous reagents. Here the authors report a microfluidic system catalysing an interfacial reaction between CO2 and liquid phase reagents by modifying silicon nanowires with immobilized ionic liquid catalysts.
Patrick Ming-Kuen Tang, Shuang Zhou, Xiao-Ming Meng, Qing-Ming Wang, Chun-Jie Li, Guang-Yu Lian, Xiao-Ru Huang, Yong-Jiang Tang, Xin-Yuan Guan, Bryan Ping-Yen Yan, Ka-Fai To and Hui-Yao Lan
Smad3, a transcription factor activated by TGF-β, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Here the authors show that Smad3 inhibits NK cell differentiation and effector function by repressing NFIL3, and that genetic or pharmacological blockade of Smad3 expands tumour-suppressive NK cells and restricts tumour growth in mice.
C. T. Adcock, O. Tschauner, E. M. Hausrath, A. Udry, S. N. Luo, Y. Cai, M. Ren, A. Lanzirotti, M. Newville, M. Kunz and C. Lin
Quantifying the amount of water in meteorites remains challenging, with minerals the key to understanding water contents. Here, Adcock et al. perform shock experiments on H+-bearing whitlockite demonstrating that it may transform into anhydrous merrillite, which is commonly found in Martian meteorites.
Burak H. Alver, Kimberly H. Kim, Ping Lu, Xiaofeng Wang, Haley E. Manchester, Weishan Wang, Jeffrey R. Haswell, Peter J. Park and Charles W. M. Roberts
SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex is a major regulator of chromatin structure and of transcription. Here, using mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human rhabdoid tumour cells, the authors provide evidence that SWI/SNF functions as a regulator of enhancers.
Hanyong Peng, Xing-Fang Li, Hongquan Zhang and X. Chris Le
Synthetic DNA nanomachines have been designed to perform a variety of tasks in vitro. Here, the authors build a nanomotor system that integrates a DNAzyme and DNA track on a gold nanoparticle, to facilitate cellular uptake, and apply it as a real-time miRNA imaging tool in living cells.
Wonjun Choi, Yonghyeon Jo, Joonmo Ahn, Eunsung Seo, Q-Han Park, Young Min Jhon and Wonshik Choi
Losses of bandwidth are inevitable when interfacing between optical and electronic components. Here the authors present a switching device consisting of a two-dimensional disordered array of nanoholes that can potentially transfer information about 40 times faster than conventional switching devices.
Juezhi Yu, Yong-Sheng Hu, Feng Pan, Zhizhen Zhang, Qing Wang, Hong Li, Xuejie Huang and Liquan Chen
Ideal energy storage technologies should be efficient, safe and cost-effective. Here, the authors make progress by using dissolved sodium metal in a solution of biphenyl and ethers as a liquid anode for rechargeable sodium beta-alumina batteries.
Patricia Himmels, Isidora Paredes, Heike Adler, Andromachi Karakatsani, Robert Luck, Hugo H. Marti, Olga Ermakova, Eugen Rempel, Esther T. Stoeckli and Carmen Ruiz de Almodóvar
The guidance cues regulating blood vessel patterning in the central nervous system remain unclear. Here, the authors show in mice and chicken developing spinal cord that motor neurons control blood vessel patterning by an autocrine mechanism titrating VEGF via the expression of its trapping receptor sFlt1.
Zachary W. Ulissi, Andrew J. Medford, Thomas Bligaard and Jens K. Nørskov
Finding catalyst mechanisms remains a challenge due to the complexity of hydrocarbon chemistry. Here, the authors shows that scaling relations and machine-learning methods can focus full-accuracy methods on the small subset of rate-limiting reactions allowing larger reaction networks to be treated.
Marcus Lefebure, Richard W. Tothill, Elizabeth Kruse, Edwin D. Hawkins, Jake Shortt, Geoffrey M. Matthews, Gareth P. Gregory, Benjamin P. Martin, Madison J. Kelly, Izabela Todorovski, Maria A. Doyle, Richard Lupat, Jason Li, Jan Schroeder, Meaghan Wall, Stuart Craig, Gretchen Poortinga, Don Cameron, Megan Bywater, Lev Kats et al.
The Eμ-Myc lymphoma mouse model has been invaluable in the study of this disease. Here, the authors use multiple sequencing strategies to analyse the tumours in these mice and find recurrent inactivating mutations in Bcor, suggesting that this gene has a negative role in Myc signalling.
Yvonne H. Chan, Sergey V. Venev, Konstantin B. Zeldovich and C. Robert Matthews
The TIM barrel fold is an evolutionarily conserved motif found in proteins with a variety of enzymatic functions. Here the authors explore the fitness landscape of the TIM barrel protein IGPS and uncover evolutionary constraints on both sequence and structure, accompanied by long range allosteric interactions.
Jonathan Zapata, Edoardo Moretto, Saad Hannan, Luca Murru, Anna Longatti, Davide Mazza, Lorena Benedetti, Matteo Fossati, Christopher Heise, Luisa Ponzoni, Pamela Valnegri, Daniela Braida, Mariaelvina Sala, Maura Francolini, Jeffrey Hildebrand, Vera Kalscheuer, Francesca Fanelli, Carlo Sala, Bernhard Bettler, Silvia Bassani et al.
Mutations in the gene encoding Shrm4 are associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. The authors show that Shrm4 interacts with GABAB receptors and regulates tonic inhibition in the hippocampus, and knockdown of Shrm4 in rats leads to anxiety-like behaviour and seizures.
A. B. Schmidt, S. Berner, W. Schimpf, C. Müller, T. Lickert, N. Schwaderlapp, S. Knecht, J. G. Skinner, A. Dost, P. Rovedo, J. Hennig, D. von Elverfeldt and J. -B. Hövener
Hyperpolarized MRI uses molecules with a nuclear spin polarization beyond the thermodynamic equilibrium to enhance imaging contrast. Here, Schmidt et al. enable a single MRI system to both generate a hyperpolarized tracer and perform imaging, eliminating the need for an external polarizer.
Carbons dominate anode materials for supercapacitors, however the attained energy density remains low. Here the authors fabricate low-crystalline iron oxide-hydroxide nanoparticle anodes with good electrochemical characteristics, exhibiting high stability and energy/power densities in a hybrid supercapacitor.
Milder conditions for processing ceramics is of interest for a range of uses. Here authors report room temperature sintering of nanoparticulate powders using a solution-assisted route, yielding parts with centimetre-sized bulk parts with specific strength comparable to and possibly surpassing that of traditional structural materials like concrete.
A. Mashayek, R. Ferrari, S. Merrifield, J. R. Ledwell, L. St Laurent and A. Naveira Garabato
Turbulent mixing next to rough topographic features is believed to be key in the closure of the abyssal ocean circulation. Here, using Southern Ocean data, the authors show that mixing hotspots trap fluid and mix it for long periods, explaining the global impact of relatively few mixing hotspots.
Alessandro Lunghi, Federico Totti, Roberta Sessoli and Stefano Sanvito
Single molecule magnets exhibit faster spin relaxation rates than expected from models based on tunnelling through the relaxation barrier. Here, the authors show, using first principles calculations, that anharmonic spin-phonon interactions may explain the under-barrier spin relaxation.
It is proposed that Arctic sea ice loss may be a cause of colder European winters, by promoting the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Here, the author shows that despite an intensification of negative NAO events, sea ice loss does not lead to cooling, and cold extremes actually decrease.
Giancarlo Ruocco, Behnam Abaie, Walter Schirmacher, Arash Mafi and Marco Leonetti
Here Leonetti et al. report the observation of single-mode states in the regime of transverse Anderson localization in a disordered optical fibre, with negligible crosstalk accompanied by an inherent resilience to fibre bending and invariance with respect to the launch conditions.
Gautam G. Yadav, Joshua W. Gallaway, Damon E. Turney, Michael Nyce, Jinchao Huang, Xia Wei and Sanjoy Banerjee
Manganese oxide cathodes in alkaline solutions combine low cost and high capacity for energy storage, but it has been challenging to combine high capacity and stable cycling in this system. Here authors demonstrate reversible, high-capacity cycling when copper additives are introduced and investigate the transformations involved.
H. L. O. McClelland, J. Bruggeman, M. Hermoso and R. E. M. Rickaby
Coccoliths are generally underused in palaeo-reconstructions due to unknown vital effects, which complicate their isotopic signatures. Here, the authors develop a cellular model of carbon isotopic fluxes calibrated by in vivo experiments and shed light on the vital effects that undermine coccolith utility.
Jiwei Wang, Xiaoming Cao, Shichang Lv, Caiyun Zhang, Sheng Xu, Min Shi and Jun Zhang
Metal carbenes are typically highly reactive and unstable species, proposed as intermediates in numerous catalytic processes. Here the authors report the isolation and characterization of gold and copper carbene intermediates involved in catalytic cyclization reactions.
Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is difficult to detect at the pre-metastatic stage; extracellular vesicles (EVs) on the other hand are involved in the pre-metastatic niche preparation. Here the authors show that EVs mediate ovarian cancer metastasis in the peritoneal area by targeting the mesothelium.
Claire B. Péan, Mark Schiebler, Sharon W. S. Tan, Jessica A. Sharrock, Katrin Kierdorf, Karen P. Brown, M. Charlotte Maserumule, Shinelle Menezes, Martina Pilátová, Kévin Bronda, Pierre Guermonprez, Brian M. Stramer, R. Andres Floto and Marc S. Dionne
Cytokines and their associated pathways can affect survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages, representing potential targets for host-directed therapies. Here, Péan et al. show that cytokine-STAT signalling promotes mycobacterial survival within macrophages by deregulating lipid droplet homeostasis.
Yiyin Mao, Gaoran Li, Yi Guo, Zhoupeng Li, Chengdu Liang, Xinsheng Peng and Zhan Lin
Lithium sulfur batteries show capacity and cost advantages, but suffer from the insulating sulfur, shuttling effect and volume fluctuation. To address these challenges, the authors synthesize foldable composite electrodes with carbon nanotubes interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks.
Tobias Priemel, Elena Degtyar, Mason N. Dean and Matthew J. Harrington
Mussels attach to rocks using a byssus, which possesses unique properties of adhesion, toughness and self-healing. Here, the authors explore the fabrication process of mussel byssus demonstrating the self-assembly of specific proteins into multi-scale organized structures using artificially induced byssus threads.
I. Weinrauch, I. Savchenko, D. Denysenko, S. M. Souliou, H-H Kim, M. Le Tacon, L. L. Daemen, Y. Cheng, A. Mavrandonakis, A. J. Ramirez-Cuesta, D. Volkmer, G. Schütz, M. Hirscher and T. Heine
Many applications require hydrogen isotopes and so it is important to develop alternative separation technologies. Here, the authors report a metal-organic framework capable of capturing deuterium from H2/D2 mixtures, and go on to predict selectivity for isotopologues containing tritium.
Nesrin Tüysüz, Louis van Bloois, Stieneke van den Brink, Harry Begthel, Monique M. A. Verstegen, Luis J. Cruz, Lijian Hui, Luc J. W. van der Laan, Jeroen de Jonge, Robert Vries, Eric Braakman, Enrico Mastrobattista, Jan J. Cornelissen, Hans Clevers and Derk ten Berge
There are two technical impediments for using purified Wnt proteins in serum-free stem cell cultures: rapid loss of activity and toxicity of detergents to stem cell self-renewal. Here, the authors show that lipid-stabilized Wnt3a can establish long-term culture of human intestinal and liver organoids.
Ebere Sonoiki, Caroline L. Ng, Marcus C. S. Lee, Denghui Guo, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yasheen Zhou, M. R. K. Alley, Vida Ahyong, Laura M. Sanz, Maria Jose Lafuente-Monasterio, Chen Dong, Patrick G. Schupp, Jiri Gut, Jenny Legac, Roland A. Cooper, Francisco-Javier Gamo, Joseph DeRisi, Yvonne R. Freund, David A. Fidock and Philip J. Rosenthal et al.
Benzoxaboroles have been shown to be active against different pathogens. Here, the authors show that the benzoxaborole AN3661 inhibits Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and in mouse models, and identify a homologue of a mammalian cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor as a drug target.
Single electrons of solid-state defects can be used to detect nearby nuclear spins, but so far only a few at a time have been resolved. Here the authors propose an approach based on delayed entanglement echo that demonstrates improved detection and manipulation capabilities of nuclear spins by an NV centre.
Juan Tang, Yujun Shen, Guilin Chen, Qiangyou Wan, Kai Wang, Jian Zhang, Jing Qin, Guizhu Liu, Shengkai Zuo, Bo Tao, Yu Yu, Junwen Wang, Michael Lazarus and Ying Yu
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) triggers sterile inflammatory reaction mediated by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Tang et al. show that the PGE2 via its receptor EP3 promotes cardiac healing after AMI by recruiting reparative Ly6Clow monocytes/macrophages, which is mediated by TGF-β-driven regulation of CX3CR1 expression and VEGF secretion.
Jianqiang Shen, Juhong Liu, Kabin Xie, Feng Xing, Fang Xiong, Jinghua Xiao, Xianghua Li and Lizhong Xiong
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are common components of eukaryotic genomes. Here the authors show that a stowaway-like MITE in the 3′-untranslated region of the rice Ghd2 gene can suppress translation in a DCL3a-dependent manner representing a novel role for transposons in translation.
Zhao-Zheng Meng, Wei Liu, Yu Xia, Hui-Min Yin, Chi-Yuan Zhang, Dan Su, Li-Feng Yan, Ai-Hua Gu and Yong Zhou
Stat4 is a transcription factor known to regulate pro-inflammatory signalling. Here, Meng et al. show that Stat4 is not only regulating inflammation but it is also crucial for great vessels development and endothelial precursor proliferation in zebrafish, by inhibiting the expression of hdac3 and counteracting the effect of Stat1a.
The adaptor protein zyxin is known for its mechanosensing function in the maintenance of actin network. Here the authors show that zyxin is key to blood homeostasis and thrombosis by controlling the endothelial release of von Willebrand factor and the formation of actin scaffolds on exocytic granules.
Decision uncertainty is often associated with higher order cognition and can impact choices. Here the authors show that post-decision pupil dilation scales with uncertainty and predicts a change in upcoming choice patterns.
Quentin R. V. Ferry, Radostina Lyutova and Tudor A. Fulga
Being able to regulate gene expression in a controllable manner is one of the promises of synthetic biology, and CRISPR-Cas9 is one of the tools being developed to achieve that goal. Here the authors develop an inducible CRISPR platform using an engineered guide RNA.
Zhenhua Sun, Jingqi Zhang, Lichang Yin, Guangjian Hu, Ruopian Fang, Hui-Ming Cheng and Feng Li
Lithium sulfur batteries are a promising next generation storage technology. Their performance, however, is subject to the parasitic shuttle effect. Here the authors report a cathode material comprising porous vanadium nitride nanoribbon and graphene to provide anchoring for polysulfides.
It is thought that, when goals are uncertain, actions are generated by averaging multiple possible movement plans. Here the authors show that movement planning under uncertainty instead varies flexibly depending on the speed of the movement in order to maximize success.
James B. Studd, Jayaram Vijayakrishnan, Minjun Yang, Gabriele Migliorini, Kajsa Paulsson and Richard S. Houlston
Risk for the paediatric cancer high-hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (HD-ALL) has been associated with genetic variants at 10q21.2. Here, the authors characterize this region, establishing a single risk variant and showing its role in dysregulated expression of ARID5B.
Martina Unterländer, Friso Palstra, Iosif Lazaridis, Aleksandr Pilipenko, Zuzana Hofmanová, Melanie Groß, Christian Sell, Jens Blöcher, Karola Kirsanow, Nadin Rohland, Benjamin Rieger, Elke Kaiser, Wolfram Schier, Dimitri Pozdniakov, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Myriam Georges, Sandra Wilde, Adam Powell, Evelyne Heyer, Mathias Currat et al.
The Scythian culture was widespread throughout the Eurasian Steppe during the 1st millennium BCE. This study provides genetic evidence for two independent origins for the Scythians in the eastern and western steppe with varying proportions of Yamnaya and East Asian ancestry, and gene flow among them.
Àlex Bayés, Mark O. Collins, Rita Reig-Viader, Gemma Gou, David Goulding, Abril Izquierdo, Jyoti S. Choudhary, Richard D. Emes and Seth G. N. Grant
Systematic analysis of the zebrafish synapse proteome has been lacking. Here the authors characterize the ultrastructure of zebrafish synapse and compare the proteomes of postsynaptic density in zebrafish and mice, offering a resource for future studies using zebrafish to model diseases.
Yuanshuai Liu, Aleksei Vjunov, Hui Shi, Sebastian Eckstein, Donald M. Camaioni, Donghai Mei, Eszter Baráth and Johannes A. Lercher
Alcohol dehydration can be challenging in aqueous phase. Here the authors show that hydronium ions confined with zeolite pores catalyse alcohol dehydration at a significantly increased rate relative to aqueous phase hydronium ions, driven by an increased association between the ion and alcohol and a greater entropy of activation.
Norbert Pardi, Anthony J. Secreto, Xiaochuan Shan, Fotini Debonera, Joshua Glover, Yanjie Yi, Hiromi Muramatsu, Houping Ni, Barbara L. Mui, Ying K. Tam, Farida Shaheen, Ronald G. Collman, Katalin Karikó, Gwenn A. Danet-Desnoyers, Thomas D. Madden, Michael J. Hope and Drew Weissman
Monoclonal antibodies are highly effective therapeutics that can be delivered as proteins or encoded DNA or mRNA. Here the authors develop lipid nanoparticle-formulated nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding an HIV-1 neutralizing antibody and see sustained and protective antibody levels in treated mice.
Yanchao Yuan, Yanxiao Sun, Shijing Yan, Jianqing Zhao, Shumei Liu, Mingqiu Zhang, Xiaoxing Zheng and Lei Jia
The attractive strength and stability of resin matrix carbon fibre composites also make them difficult to recycle using gentle treatments which avoid degradation of structure and properties. Here authors demonstrate a composite that can be recycled for multiple cycles with little degradation.
Daniel J. Hill, Kevin P. Bolton and Alan M. Haywood
Global deep water mass properties converged in the North Pacific and Atlantic oceans during the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Here, using a coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model, the authors show that a reduction in coastal ice in the Pacific sector of Antarctica was likely responsible for this change.
Premkumar Leishangthem, Anshul D. S. Parmar and Srikanth Sastry
The onset of yielding can be difficult to define unambiguously for amorphous materials. Here the authors undertake computer simulations of model glasses of varying system sizes and show that, under oscillatory shear, they exhibit a sharp transition independent of preparation history.
Loss-of-function mutations in PNPLA1, a gene encoding an enzyme with unknown function, cause dry and scaling skin in humans. Using mouse models with PNPLA1 deficiency, the authors show that PNPLA1 participates in the biosynthesis of acylceramide, a lipid component essential for skin barrier function.
Eugene Y. Chiang, Tianbo Li, Surinder Jeet, Ivan Peng, Juan Zhang, Wyne P. Lee, Jason DeVoss, Patrick Caplazi, Jun Chen, Søren Warming, David H. Hackos, Susmith Mukund, Christopher M. Koth and Jane L. Grogan
Potassium channels are essential for modulating T-cell functions. Here, by characterizing rat models and analysing human T cells, the authors identify differential requirements of two potassium channel proteins, Kv1.3 and KCa3.1, for the induction of conventional versus autoreactive T-cell responses.
Martin S. Davey, Carrie R. Willcox, Stephen P. Joyce, Kristin Ladell, Sofya A. Kasatskaya, James E. McLaren, Stuart Hunter, Mahboob Salim, Fiyaz Mohammed, David A. Price, Dmitriy M. Chudakov and Benjamin E. Willcox
γδ T cells are generally considered innate‐like lymphocytes. Here the authors sequence human γδ T cell receptors (TCR) to show focusing of the private Vδ1 TCR repertoire, suggesting that, unlike Vδ2 T cells, the Vδ1 T cell compartment has adaptive attributes.
Halime Kalkavan, Piyush Sharma, Stefan Kasper, Iris Helfrich, Aleksandra A. Pandyra, Asmae Gassa, Isabel Virchow, Lukas Flatz, Tim Brandenburg, Sukumar Namineni, Mathias Heikenwalder, Bastian Höchst, Percy A. Knolle, Guido Wollmann, Dorothee von Laer, Ingo Drexler, Jessica Rathbun, Paula M. Cannon, Stefanie Scheu, Jens Bauer et al.
Viruses are promising anti-tumour therapeutics due to induction of an immune response and/or oncolytic activity. Here, Kalkavan et al. show that LCMV replicates in tumour cells, without inducing cell lysis, and that its anti-tumour activity is largely mediated by recruitment of interferon-producing monocytes.
Anh T. Tran, Emma E. Watson, Venugopal Pujari, Trent Conroy, Luke J. Dowman, Andrew M. Giltrap, Angel Pang, Weng Ruh Wong, Roger G. Linington, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jessica Saunders, Susan A. Charman, Nicholas P. West, Timothy D. H. Bugg, Julie Tod, Christopher G. Dowson, David I. Roper, Dean C. Crick, Warwick J. Britton and Richard J. Payne et al.
Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) infections are emerging at a high rate, with only few therapeutic options currently available. Here, the authors report synthetic analogues of the natural product sansanmycin that target mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis and represent potent leads for improved anti-TB treatments.
Molybdenum has long been speculated to undergo an exceptionally steep increase in melting temperature when compressed but without direct experimental evidence. Here authors claim such a direct observation and also report a transition at high pressure and high temperature.
Yusuke Ohno, Nozomi Kamiyama, Shota Nakamichi and Akio Kihara
Loss-of-function mutations in an enzyme of unknown function, PNPLA1, cause dry and scaling skin in humans. Here Ohno et al. show that PNPLA1 is a transacylase that acts in the final step of acylceramide production- esterification between ω-hydroxyceramide and linoleic acid acylceramide, yielding a lipid essential for skin barrier function.
Frank Seiboth, Andreas Schropp, Maria Scholz, Felix Wittwer, Christian Rödel, Martin Wünsche, Tobias Ullsperger, Stefan Nolte, Jussi Rahomäki, Karolis Parfeniukas, Stylianos Giakoumidis, Ulrich Vogt, Ulrich Wagner, Christoph Rau, Ulrike Boesenberg, Jan Garrevoet, Gerald Falkenberg, Eric C. Galtier, Hae Ja Lee, Bob Nagler et al.
X-ray optics are notoriously challenging to fabricate due to the strict tolerances that result from the short wavelength of radiation. Here, Seiboth et al. carefully quantify aberrations in complex X-ray lenses and correct them with an easy-to-fabricate broadband phase plate.
H. Xu, U. Kemiktarak, J. Fan, S. Ragole, J. Lawall and J. M. Taylor
Optomechanical systems could form logic gates, but key requirements are two stable static states and the ability to switch between them. Here, the authors observe radiation-pressure induced buckling transitions in an optomechanical system, and control this transition by varying laser power and detuning.
Xiaoli Wang, Michael Pittman, Xiaoting Zheng, Thomas G. Kaye, Amanda R. Falk, Scott A. Hartman and Xing Xu
Soft tissues are rarely preserved in the fossil record; therefore, body shape of extinct vertebrates is usually inferred indirectly. Here, the authors use laser-stimulated fluorescence of fossils to detect and reconstruct the body outline of the paravian dinosaur Anchiornis from the Late Jurassic.
Zhaobin Zhang, Ying Hu, Jilong Guo, Tong Yu, Libei Sun, Xuan Xiao, Desheng Zhu, Tsuyoshi Nakanishi, Youhei Hiromori, Junyu Li, Xiaolin Fan, Yi Wan, Siyu Cheng, Jun Li, Xuan Guo and Jianying Hu
Bisphenol A is used in the production of many plastic products, but has adverse health effects and is therefore being replaced. Here the authors show that its substitute, fluorene-9-bisphenol, is released from commercial plastic bottles into drinking water, and has anti-oestrogenic effects in mice.
Observed sea-ice loss near ice sheets has, in many cases, been accompanied by accelerated iceberg calving. Here, using a new model, the authors show that iceberg calving from glaciers can be suppressed by a mélange of sea ice and icebergs, with an increased likelihood of calving as sea ice thins.
Mariaceleste Aragona, Sophie Dekoninck, Steffen Rulands, Sandrine Lenglez, Guilhem Mascré, Benjamin D. Simons and Cédric Blanpain
Wound healing is essential to repair the skin after injury and distinct stem cells in the epidermis are known to contribute to the process. Here the authors perform molecular, functional and clonal analysis and reveal the individual contribution of stem cells coming from different epidermal compartments to the wound-healing process in mice.
I Gonzalez-Valdes, I Hidalgo, A Bujarrabal, E Lara-Pezzi, L Padron-Barthe, P Garcia-Pavia, Pablo Gómez-del Arco, J M Redondo, J M Ruiz-Cabello, L J Jimenez-Borreguero, J A Enriquez, J L de la Pompa, A Hidalgo and S Gonzalez
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