This year's Frontiers in Biology Insight features Reviews on how genomics is helping to uncover the peopling of the world, the interplay between morphogens and morphogenesis in determining organismal shape, the factors that influence the immune response to cancer, advances in single-cell genomics, and the effects of base modifications in messenger RNA.
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Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Beatrix Emo, Lorelei R. Howard, Fiona E. Zisch, Yichao Yu, Rebecca Knight, Joao Pinelo Silva and Hugo J. Spiers
The hippocampus is known to support navigation, but how it processes possible paths to aid navigation is unknown. Here Javadi et al. show that entering streets drives hippocampal activity corresponding to the number of future paths, and that prefrontal activity corresponds to path-planning demands.
Some circulating avian influenza A viruses can infect humans, but the mechanism enabling species jump is poorly understood. Here, Huang et al. identify a nucleotide in NEP of avian H7N9 viruses that affects splicing efficiency of the NS segment and supports virus replication in avian and mammalian cells.
Monitoring DNA binding and single-base mismatches accurately in real time is difficult, especially for miniaturized devices. Here the authors report a graphene field-effect transistor array capable of reliably measuring DNA hybridization kinetics and affinity at the picomolar level.
E. L. Cavan, M. Trimmer, F. Shelley and R. Sanders
The downward transfer of organic carbon from the surface to the deep ocean is increased in oxygen minimum zones relative to oxic waters. Here, the authors show reduced interactions of zooplankton with sinking particles owing to low oxygen are likely the primary reason for the observed high transfer of carbon.
It is unclear how bacterial chemoreceptors are reliably targeted to the cell poles. Here, Draper and Liphardt show that chemoreceptor localization is highly sensitive to membrane curvature in live bacteria, and engineer curvature sensitivity into several multi-component synthetic protein complexes.
Russell L. McLaughlin, Dick Schijven, Wouter van Rheenen, Kristel R. van Eijk, Margaret O’Brien, René S. Kahn, Roel A. Ophoff, An Goris, Daniel G. Bradley, Ammar Al-Chalabi, Leonard H. van den Berg, Jurjen J. Luykx, Orla Hardiman, Jan H. Veldink, null null, Aleksey Shatunov, Annelot M. Dekker, Frank P. Diekstra, Sara L. Pulit, Rick A. A. van der Spek et al.
Relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have an unexpectedly high incidence of schizophrenia. Here, the authors show a genetic link between the two conditions, suggesting shared neurobiological mechanisms.
Eugene A. Katrukha, Marina Mikhaylova, Hugo X. van Brakel, Paul M. van Bergen en Henegouwen, Anna Akhmanova, Casper C. Hoogenraad and Lukas C. Kapitein
Methods to probe transport dynamics within cells can shed insight into the nature of the cytoplasm. Here the authors develop a method to functionalize and deliver quantum dots intracellularly to show how the cytoskeleton influences non-equilibrium intracellular transport dynamics.
Marco Gobbi, Sara Bonacchi, Jian X. Lian, Yi Liu, Xiao-Ye Wang, Marc-Antoine Stoeckel, Marco A. Squillaci, Gabriele D’Avino, Akimitsu Narita, Klaus Müllen, Xinliang Feng, Yoann Olivier, David Beljonne, Paolo Samorì and Emanuele Orgiu
Two-dimensional material heterostructures enable unique electronic features by introducing periodic potentials. Here, Gobbi et al. use a monolayer supramolecular lattice with a tunable one-dimensional periodic potential to modify the electronic structure of graphene.
Christian Steiner, Julian Gebhardt, Maximilian Ammon, Zechao Yang, Alexander Heidenreich, Natalie Hammer, Andreas Görling, Milan Kivala and Sabine Maier
On-surface synthesis is an excellent tool for the controlled synthesis of tailored nanomaterials. Here, the authors hierarchically synthesize covalent structures on Au(111) through Ullmann-type coupling of triphenylamines, forming macrocycles, 1D chains, and 2D networks, allowing them to study the effect of dimensionality on electronic band gap.
Rhys A. Farrer, An Martel, Elin Verbrugghe, Amr Abouelleil, Richard Ducatelle, Joyce E. Longcore, Timothy Y. James, Frank Pasmans, Matthew C. Fisher and Christina A. Cuomo
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans are both important pathogens of amphibians, but they differ in their host ranges, infection strategies, and host immune responses. Here, Farrer and colleagues compare their genomes and transcriptomes to identify the genetic basis of these differences.
Charlotte Grosse Wiesmann, Jan Schreiber, Tania Singer, Nikolaus Steinbeis and Angela D. Friederici
At age 4, children start understanding other peoples' false beliefs, but the related neuroanatomical changes are unknown. Here, authors show that false belief understanding is associated with age-related changes in white matter structure, and that this effect is independent of other cognitive abilities.
Torsten Rendler, Jitka Neburkova, Ondrej Zemek, Jan Kotek, Andrea Zappe, Zhiqin Chu, Petr Cigler and Jörg Wrachtrup
The use of nanoscale sensors capable of detection of biological parameters is of great interest in diagnosis. Here, the authors use experimental and theoretical methods to develop a nanodiamond sensor with nitrogen vacancy defects for detection of pH and redox in a microfluidic device.
Lin Zhang, Hong Yu, Bin Ma, Guifu Liu, Jianjun Wang, Junmin Wang, Rongcun Gao, Jinjun Li, Jiyun Liu, Jing Xu, Yingying Zhang, Qun Li, Xuehui Huang, Jianlong Xu, Jianming Li, Qian Qian, Bin Han, Zuhua He and Jiayang Li
Breeding of rice with ideal plant architecture has increased rice yield worldwide. Here Zhang et al. show that, in the super rice variety YY12, this ideal plant architecture trait arose from three distal tandem repeats that are associated with an open chromatin state and increased expression of the IPA1 gene.
Vishal Maingi, Jonathan R. Burns, Jaakko J. Uusitalo, Stefan Howorka, Siewert J. Marrink and Mark S. P. Sansom
Although DNA nanopores are widely explored as synthetic membrane proteins, it is still unclear how the anionic DNA assemblies stably reside within the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer. Here, the authors use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the key dynamic interactions and energetics stabilizing the nanopore-membrane interaction.
Bradley K. Woodworth, Nathaniel T. Wheelwright, Amy E. Newman, Michael Schaub and D. Ryan Norris
Population dynamics of migratory animals can be driven by direct, indirect, and potentially opposing effects at wintering and breeding grounds. Here, Woodworth et al. show that migratory sparrow population growth rate is balanced by temperature at wintering grounds and density-dependence at breeding grounds.
Biennial variability has intensified in the Pacific in recent decades, but the cause of this increase is not fully understood. Here, with statistical analyses and numerical experiments, the authors show that an Atlantic capacitor effect has given rise to this enhanced biennial variability since the early 1990s.
Michael J. Mitchell, Jamie Webster, Amanda Chung, Pedro P. G. Guimarães, Omar F. Khan and Robert Langer
Fluid shear stress plays a critical role in receptor-mediated signalling and has been shown to sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis. Here, Mitchell et al. introduce polymer micro- and nanoparticles tethered to tumour cells to amplify fluid shear stress effects, and find that they can enhance immune cytokine-mediated apoptosis of tumour cells in vitro and in vivo.
Wim Denissen, Martijn Droesbeke, Renaud Nicolaÿ, Ludwik Leibler, Johan M. Winne and Filip E. Du Prez
Vitrimers are malleable networks based on thermally triggered associative exchange reactions and thus can be used for processing, recycling and self-healing materials. Here the authors show how acids and bases affect the exchange kinetics and in turn rationalize these effects mechanistically.
Weijun Feng, Daisuke Kawauchi, Huiqin Körkel-Qu, Huan Deng, Elisabeth Serger, Laura Sieber, Jenna Ariel Lieberman, Silvia Jimeno-González, Sander Lambo, Bola S. Hanna, Yassin Harim, Malin Jansen, Anna Neuerburg, Olga Friesen, Marc Zuckermann, Vijayanad Rajendran, Jan Gronych, Olivier Ayrault, Andrey Korshunov, David T. W. Jones et al.
Mutations in the chromatin modifier Chd7 have been associated with CHARGE syndrome and other developmental disorders. Here the authors show that Chd7 is required for the activation of genes essential for cerebellar granule cell differentiation, and that disrupting Chd7 leads to cerebellar hypoplasia in mice.
Alexis R. Barr, Samuel Cooper, Frank S. Heldt, Francesca Butera, Henriette Stoy, Jörg Mansfeld, Béla Novák and Chris Bakal
Cell cycle arrest after DNA damage is achieved by the expression of the CDK inhibitor p21. Here the authors show that spontaneous DNA damage incurred in unperturbed cell cycles, leads to cell populations exhibiting a bistable state, with p53 and p21 regulating the proliferation-quiescence decision.
Emad Moeendarbary, Isabell P. Weber, Graham K. Sheridan, David E. Koser, Sara Soleman, Barbara Haenzi, Elizabeth J. Bradbury, James Fawcett and Kristian Franze
Glial scars are thought to provide a biochemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration post-injury, but the mechanical properties of the scars have not been studied in detail. Here the authors perform atomic force microscopy measurements of glial scars from the injured rat cortex and spinal cord, and find that brain tissue softens in response to the injury.
Ping Liu, Bojun Chen, Roger Mailler and Zhao-Wen Wang
Emerging evidence suggests that chemical and electrical synapses interact to regulate the strength of synaptic transmission. Liu et al. report that in a C. elegans escape circuit, functionally mixed electrical-chemical synapses exist between premotor interneurons and downstream motor neurons, and that the electrical synapse amplifies the chemical transmission between the neurons.
Marc Dubois, Chengzhi Shi, Xuefeng Zhu, Yuan Wang and Xiang Zhang
Impedance mismatch between acoustic metamaterials and a surrounding medium hinders efficient applications, especially for zero-index materials. Here, Dubois et al. utilize the Dirac-like dispersion in a double-zero-index material to overcome this problem and to collimate sound.
For reactions producing numerous chiral centres, accessing all potential stereoisomers is synthetically appealing but difficult. Here, the authors report a stereodivergent 1,6-addition of azlactones where minimal changes to the catalyst structure switches the product selectivity.
Harry J. Shrives, José A. Fernández-Salas, Christin Hedtke, Alexander P. Pulis and David J. Procter
Benzothiophenes are common motifs in bioactive compounds, but selective functionalization at C3 is challenging. Here the authors report a method starting from benzothiophene S-oxides via an interrupted Pummerer reaction, giving access to a range of C3-alkylated and -arylated products.
Paul Yeh, Tane Hunter, Devbarna Sinha, Sarah Ftouni, Elise Wallach, Damian Jiang, Yih-Chih Chan, Stephen Q. Wong, Maria Joao Silva, Ravikiran Vedururu, Kenneth Doig, Enid Lam, Gisela Mir Arnau, Timothy Semple, Meaghan Wall, Andjelija Zivanovic, Rishu Agarwal, Pasquale Petrone, Kate Jones, David Westerman et al.
Disease monitoring of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a challenge. Here, the authors show that serial ctDNA analysis in 32 CLL patients allows monitoring of clonal dynamics over time, and identifies the emergence of genomic changes associated with Richter’s syndrome.
Haifei Zhan, Gang Zhang, Vincent B. C. Tan and Yuantong Gu
Carbon fibres are emerging as a promising material for multifunctional nanotextiles. Here, the authors show that diamond nanothread possesses excellent torsional deformation capability and interfacial load transfer efficiency, ideal for constructing next generation carbon fibres.
S. Lan, Y. Ren, X. Y. Wei, B. Wang, E. P. Gilbert, T. Shibayama, S. Watanabe, M. Ohnuma and X. -L. Wang
An anomalous exothermal calorimetric peak far below crystallization temperatures in prototypical Pd-Ni-P glasses has been recognized for four decades. Here authors use neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction to find evidence for a polyamorphous phase transition where medium-range order undergoes large changes while short-range order changes little.
Yan Zhang, Rory Wilson, Jonathan Heiss, Lutz P. Breitling, Kai-Uwe Saum, Ben Schöttker, Bernd Holleczek, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters and Hermann Brenner
DNA methylation is modulated by environmental factors and has a role in many complex diseases. Here, the authors find that methylation at specific DNA sites is associated with all-cause mortality, and a methylation-based risk score may be informative for risk assessment and stratification.
Christoph Jandl, Sue M. Liu, Pablo F. Cañete, Joanna Warren, William E. Hughes, Alexis Vogelzang, Kylie Webster, Maria E. Craig, Gulbu Uzel, Alexander Dent, Polina Stepensky, Bärbel Keller, Klaus Warnatz, Jonathan Sprent and Cecile King
IL-21 is central to follicular helper T cell function and germinal centre responses. Here the authors show that IL-21 signalling directly inhibits T follicular regulatory cells by limiting Bcl-6-dependent IL-2 receptor expression.
Ting-Lin B. Yang, Qijun Chen, Jennifer T. Deng, Geetha Jagannathan, John W. Tobias, David C. Schultz, Shan Wang, Christopher J. Lengner, Anil K. Rustgi, John P. Lynch and F. Brad Johnson
Mice lacking telomerase provide a model to study pathogenesis caused by critical telomere shortening. Here, the authors provide evidence that telomere shortening causes downregulation of Wnt signalling in intestinal crypts and that defects can be partially rescued by treatment with Wnt agonists.
Alastair G. C. Graham, Gerhard Kuhn, Ove Meisel, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Dominic A. Hodgson, Werner Ehrmann, Lukas Wacker, Paul Wintersteller, Christian dos Santos Ferreira, Miriam Römer, Duanne White and Gerhard Bohrmann
The glaciated history of South Georgia is debated, with many suggesting a coastal limit to the island’s ice cap during the last glaciation. Here, the authors show extensive ice-cap cover of the continental block during this time and a readvance of glaciers to fjord mouths during the Antarctic Cold Reversal.
Katharina Brinck, Rico Fischer, Jürgen Groeneveld, Sebastian Lehmann, Mateus Dantas De Paula, Sandro Pütz, Joseph O. Sexton, Danxia Song and Andreas Huth
Vast quantities of carbon stored in tropical forests are threatened by deforestation. Here, using high resolution satellite data, Brinck et al. examine how edge effects influence carbon emissions and they find an additional 10.3 Gt of carbon are released by deforestation when including fragmentation effects.
Silvia Grasso, Jennifer Chapelle, Vincenzo Salemme, Simona Aramu, Isabella Russo, Nicoletta Vitale, Ludovica Verdun di Cantogno, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Isabella Castellano, Augusto Amici, Giorgia Centonze, Nanaocha Sharma, Serena Lunardi, Sara Cabodi, Federica Cavallo, Alessia Lamolinara, Lorenzo Stramucci, Enrico Moiso, Paolo Provero, Adriana Albini et al.
p140Cap adaptor proteins interfere with adhesion and growth factor-dependent signalling in cancer cells but the mechanisms are unclear. Here the authors show that p140Cap interferes with ERBB2-dependent activation of Rac GTPase-controlled circuitries reducing metastasis and cancer progression.
Functionalization of the multiple, similar, boron-hydrogen bonds in carboranes is difficult to achieve with selectivity. Here the authors report an iridium-catalysed borylation of o-carboranes with high yields and regioselectivities.
Xian Zhang, Binkui Li, Abdol Hossein Rezaeian, Xiaohong Xu, Ping-Chieh Chou, Guoxiang Jin, Fei Han, Bo-Syong Pan, Chi-Yun Wang, Jie Long, Anmei Zhang, Chih-Yang Huang, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chang-Hai Tsai, Christopher Logothetis and Hui-Kuan Lin
Histone modifications play important roles in gene transcription and cancer. Here the authors establish a role for the E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 in modifying in a glucose-dependent manner the histone H3, thus regulating the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis.
Proteins can template the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles, but the formation mechanisms remain vague. Here, the authors directly observe, through a sequence of X-ray crystal structures, the stages of gold sub-nanocluster growth within the confined environment of a ferritin cage.
Eneko Villanueva, Pilar Navarro, Maria Rovira-Rigau, Annarita Sibilio, Raúl Méndez and Cristina Fillat
mRNA translational control by CPEBs is reactivated in cancer. Here, the authors show that the insertion of CPE regulatory sequences in the 3′ UTR of the E1A viral gene induces oncoselectivity, with oncolytic potency in cancer cells but attenuated toxicity in normal tissues.
Gonzalo Carvacho, Francesco Andreoli, Luca Santodonato, Marco Bentivegna, Rafael Chaves and Fabio Sciarrino
Bell’s theorem has important implications for quantum information processing. Here the authors experimentally investigate the violation of a Bell-like inequality in the case of distant parties whose correlations are mediated by independent sources, a realistic feature in future quantum networks.
Chenyang Cai, Richard A. B. Leschen, David S Hibbett, Fangyuan Xia and Diying Huang
Agarics (gilled mushrooms) are rarely preserved as fossils, which has obscured their evolutionary history. Here, the authors describe new forms of agarics as well as new species of rove beetles with morphological specializations for mushroom feeding discovered in 99-million-year-old Burmese amber.
Hong Yi, Dali Yang, Jie Xin, Xiaotian Qi, Yu Lan, Yi Deng, Chih-Wen Pao, Jyh-Fu Lee and Aiwen Lei
Organocopper species are widely used in synthetic chemistry. Here the authors study the structure of the anionic complex formed from copper salts and lithium halides, showing it to be a key intermediate in the formation of organocuprates, and also show that Cu(II) precursors can form Gilman reagents.
Johanna C. Klein, Katrin Moses, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Simon Sody, Jan Buer, Stephan Lang, Iris Helfrich, Ulf Dittmer, Carsten J. Kirschning and Sven Brandau
Activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) is generally associated with increased immune activity. Here, the authors show, using syngeneic mouse models, that combined deficiency of TLR 3/7/9 in the host induces an inflamed tumour phenotype and results in T cell dependent tumour regression after an initial growth.
Lingting Ye, Minyi Zhang, Ping Huang, Guocong Guo, Maochun Hong, Chunsen Li, John T. S. Irvine and Kui Xie
Carbon dioxide electrolysers are promising for chemical storage of renewable electricity; however, achieving effective adsorption/activation of CO2 is still an issue. Here the authors make a perovskite titanate cathode where non-stoichiometry and chemical doping are used to tune the surface structures, facilitating CO2 reduction.
Binsong Li, Kaifu Bian, J. Matthew D. Lane, K. Michael Salerno, Gary S. Grest, Tommy Ao, Randy Hickman, Jack Wise, Zhongwu Wang and Hongyou Fan
Gold nanostructures have shape-dependent properties, making synthetic control over their morphology critical. Here, the authors use dynamic compression to obtain a variety of gold nanoarchitectures, which are formed at very fast timescales by the controlled coalescence of spherical particle arrays.
Xiaohuan Sun, James Cahill, Tom Van Hautegem, Kim Feys, Clinton Whipple, Ondrej Novák, Sofie Delbare, Charlot Versteele, Kirin Demuynck, Jolien De Block, Veronique Storme, Hannes Claeys, Mieke Van Lijsebettens, Griet Coussens, Karin Ljung, Alex De Vliegher, Michael Muszynski, Dirk Inzé and Hilde Nelissen
Maize is the highest yielding cereal crop grown worldwide. Here Sun et al. show that maize growth can be further enhanced by prolonging the duration of leaf elongation by targeted ectopic expression of the PLASTOCHRON1 gene and show that this leads to increased yield in field trials.
Yong Wu, De-Cai Xiong, Si-Cong Chen, Yong-Shi Wang and Xin-Shan Ye
Due to the vast number of potential isomers, the chemical synthesis of large carbohydrates is challenging. Here the authors report the synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan, a biologically important natural product composed of 92 monosaccharide units, the largest synthetic polysaccharide to date.
D. Maryenko, A. S. Mishchenko, M. S. Bahramy, A. Ernst, J. Falson, Y. Kozuka, A. Tsukazaki, N. Nagaosa and M. Kawasaki
The realization of the anomalous Hall effect in high-mobility two dimensional electron systems has so far remained elusive. Here, the authors observe its emergence in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures and attribute it to skew scattering of electrons by localized paramagnetic centres.
S. Saif Hasan, Andrew Miller, Gopal Sapparapu, Estefania Fernandez, Thomas Klose, Feng Long, Andrei Fokine, Jason C. Porta, Wen Jiang, Michael S. Diamond, James E. Crowe Jr., Richard J. Kuhn and Michael G. Rossmann
The human monoclonal antibody ZIKV-117 has demonstrated therapeutic potential against Zika while showing no cross-reactivity to other flaviviruses. Here the authors present a cryo-EM structure of the ZIKV strain H/PF/2013 in complex with the ZIKV-117 Fab, shedding light on its neutralization mechanism.
Martin Vaeth, Jun Yang, Megumi Yamashita, Isabelle Zee, Miriam Eckstein, Camille Knosp, Ulrike Kaufmann, Peter Karoly Jani, Rodrigo S. Lacruz, Veit Flockerzi, Imre Kacskovics, Murali Prakriya and Stefan Feske
Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels are essential for protective immunity, but the immunological functions of the three ORAI homologues that form CRAC channels are unclear. Here the authors show that ORAI1 and ORAI2 form heteromeric CRAC channels, which fine-tune T cell activation and immune responses.
P. J. Sáenz, A. W. Wray, Z. Che, O. K. Matar, P. Valluri, J. Kim and K. Sefiane
Drop evaporation can be used as a fabrication technology for targeted particle deposition or microflow control, yet previous research is limited to spherical drops. Here, Sáenz et al. generalize the evaporation dynamics for arbitrary drop geometry and show its potential for more sophisticated control.
Pablo Rodriguez-Lopez, Wilton J. M. Kort-Kamp, Diego A. R. Dalvit and Lilia M. Woods
The Casimir force is a ubiquitous interaction arising from electromagnetic quantum fluctuations. Here, the authors uncover the underlying physics governing Casimir force phase transitions in staggered 2D materials in the graphene family.
Christine Gundry, Sergi Marco, Elena Rainero, Bryan Miller, Emmanuel Dornier, Louise Mitchell, Patrick T. Caswell, Andrew D. Campbell, Anna Hogeweg, Owen J. Sansom, Jennifer P. Morton and Jim C. Norman
Ephrin receptors mediate contact inhibition, but their intracellular trafficking during this process is unknown. Here the authors show that EphA2 receptor trafficking is regulated by the Rab GTPase effector Rab-coupling protein, which associates with Rab14-endosomes upon LMTK3-mediated phosphorylation.
Daniel H. Weingarten, Michael D. LaCount, Jao van de Lagemaat, Garry Rumbles, Mark T. Lusk and Sean E. Shaheen
Photon upconversion methods demonstrated thus far involve challenging requirements. Here Weingarten et al. demonstrate a mechanism called cooperative energy pooling, in which multiple photoexcited sensitizers resonantly and simultaneously transfer their energies to a higher-energy state on a single acceptor.
Maja Feierabend, Gunnar Berghäuser, Andreas Knorr and Ermin Malic
Two-dimensional materials have shown great promise as efficient chemical sensors. Here, the authors present a sensing mechanism to allow the detection of molecules based on dark excitons in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides.
R. Emerton, H. L. Cloke, E. M. Stephens, E. Zsoter, S. J. Woolnough and F. Pappenberger
El Niño and La Niña (ENSO) events influence global river flow and are often used as an early indicator of potential flooding. Here, the authors show that the probability of ENSO-driven flood hazard is more complex than is often perceived, and highlight the importance of considering hydrological response.
E. Kermarrec, J. Gaudet, K. Fritsch, R. Khasanov, Z. Guguchia, C. Ritter, K. A. Ross, H. A. Dabkowska and B. D. Gaulin
An understanding of how quantum spin liquids arise in frustrated magnets at low temperatures remains elusive. Here the authors demonstrate a pressure-driven ferromagnetic transition out of a quantum spin liquid phase in the pyrochlore Yb2Ti2O7, highlighting its proximity to a phase boundary.
Benjamin Lacar, Sara B. Linker, Baptiste N. Jaeger, Suguna Rani Krishnaswami, Jerika J. Barron, Martijn J. E. Kelder, Sarah L Parylak, Apuã C. M. Paquola, Pratap Venepally, Mark Novotny, Carolyn O’Connor, Conor Fitzpatrick, Jennifer A. Erwin, Jonathan Y. Hsu, David Husband, Michael J. McConnell, Roger Lasken and Fred H. Gage
Sebastian Sjöqvist, Philipp Jungebluth, Mei Ling Lim, Johannes C. Haag, Ylva Gustafsson, Greg Lemon, Silvia Baiguera, Miguel Angel Burguillos, Costantino Del Gaudio, Antonio Beltrán Rodríguez, Alexander Sotnichenko, Karolina Kublickiene, Henrik Ullman, Heike Kielstein, Peter Damberg, Alessandra Bianco, Rainer Heuchel, Ying Zhao, Domenico Ribatti, Cristián Ibarra et al.
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