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Sometimes, a drug can remedy a chemical imbalance or surgery can repair a structural failure, but there are times when there is no substitute for replacing a part with human tissue or an entire organ. Rapid advances in regenerative medicine are bringing that possibility closer to reality.
Poster on effects of new antidiabetic drugs on cardiovascular health
This poster summarizes cardiovascular outcome trials of newly developed glucose-lowering agents. Some of these drugs have shown cardiovascular benefit that might have clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes.
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The validity of conclusions drawn from functional MRI research has been questioned for some time now. Nature Neuroscience and Nature Communications are committed to working with neuroimaging researchers to improve the robustness and reproducibility of their work.
Yaoguang Rong, Xiaomeng Hou, Yue Hu, Anyi Mei, Linfeng Liu, Ping Wang and Hongwei Han
The commercialization of solar cells based on hybrid perovskites requires challenges of device stability and scalable production to be addressed. Rong et al. report ambient-processed printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cells with a lifetime of over 130 days in ambient air with 30% relative humidity.
Weiwei Zhai, Tony Kiat-Hon Lim, Tong Zhang, Su-Ting Phang, Zenia Tiang, Peiyong Guan, Ming-Hwee Ng, Jia Qi Lim, Fei Yao, Zheng Li, Poh Yong Ng, Jie Yan, Brian K. Goh, Alexander Yaw-Fui Chung, Su-Pin Choo, Chiea Chuen Khor, Wendy Wei-Jia Soon, Ken Wing-Kin Sung, Roger Sik-Yin Foo and Pierce Kah-Hoe Chow et al.
Hepatocellular carcinoma has one of the poorest survival rates amongst cancers. Here, the authors highlight the intra-tumour heterogeneity of this disease, finding that spatially closer tumour sectors are genetically more similar and that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid genetic diversification.
Sean P. Rodrigues, Shoufeng Lan, Lei Kang, Yonghao Cui, Patrick W. Panuski, Shengxiang Wang, Augustine M. Urbas and Wenshan Cai
Here Rodrigues et al. report an optical metamaterial with tailored chiroptical effects in the nonlinear regime, which exhibits a pronounced shift in its circular dichroism spectrum under a modest level of excitation power.
The interaction between electric currents and magnetic textures in frustrated magnetic materials leads to rich nonlinear dynamics. Here, the authors show how currents can be used to control topology of edge states in nanostripes by inducing the emission and absorption of skyrmions.
Johannes Zierenberg, Philipp Schierz and Wolfhard Janke
Droplet formation processes are ubiquitous in nature and accompanied by a free-energy barrier. Here, the authors present a numerical approach for a shape-free determination of free-energy barriers and demonstrate on this level an analogy between particle condensation and polymer aggregation.
How quantum size effects affect superconductivity has been predicted, but it has never been verified. Here, Vlaic et al. report superconducting parity effect as a function of lead nanocrystal volume, unambiguously validating the Anderson criterion.
Atsushi Takata, Naomichi Matsumoto and Tadafumi Kato
Alternative splicing of mRNAs occurs in tissue specific manners and may be modulated by genetic variations. Here, Takata and colleagues perform splicing quantitative trait loci analysis (sQTL) of human brain and show significant enrichment of sQTLs among neurological disease-associated loci.
Gianluca Memoli, Mihai Caleap, Michihiro Asakawa, Deepak R. Sahoo, Bruce W. Drinkwater and Sriram Subramanian
Controlling acoustic fields is of interest for diverse applications. Here the authors develop metasurfaces using a small set of pre-manufactured three-dimensional unit cells, quantized in both the spatial and phase domains, achieving with them acoustic levitation.
Bote Zhao, Lei Zhang, Dongxing Zhen, Seonyoung Yoo, Yong Ding, Dongchang Chen, Yu Chen, Qiaobao Zhang, Brian Doyle, Xunhui Xiong and Meilin Liu
The design of efficient and stable oxygen evolution catalysts has implications for water splitting and metal-air battery technology. Here, the authors fabricate double perovskite nanofibers and demonstrate the favourable effects of co-doping and nanostructuring on oxygen evolution performance.
Karsten Suhre, Matthias Arnold, Aditya Mukund Bhagwat, Richard J. Cotton, Rudolf Engelke, Johannes Raffler, Hina Sarwath, Gaurav Thareja, Annika Wahl, Robert Kirk DeLisle, Larry Gold, Marija Pezer, Gordan Lauc, Mohammed A. El-Din Selim, Dennis O. Mook-Kanamori, Eman K. Al-Dous, Yasmin A. Mohamoud, Joel Malek, Konstantin Strauch, Harald Grallert et al.
Individual genetic variation can affect the levels of protein in blood, but detailed data sets linking these two types of data are rare. Here, the authors carry out a genome-wide association study of levels of over a thousand different proteins, and describe many new SNP-protein interactions.
Gluconeogenesis is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, the authors show that nuclear receptor Nur77 acts as a tumour suppressor sustaining gluconeogenesis by enhancing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK1) stability via regulating its interaction with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9.
Chiara V. Ragni, Nicolas Diguet, Jean-François Le Garrec, Marta Novotova, Tatiana P. Resende, Sorin Pop, Nicolas Charon, Laurent Guillemot, Lisa Kitasato, Caroline Badouel, Alexandre Dufour, Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin, Alain Trouvé, Helen McNeill and Sigolène M Meilhac
Growth of the mammalian heart is controlled by Hippo signalling but how this is regulated is unclear. Here, the authors show that Fat4 (an atypical cadherin) acts upstream of Hippo signalling and Fat4 mutant mice have thicker myocardium, which is mediated by the scaffold Amot1 and transcription factor Yap1.
Francesca Rossiello, Julio Aguado, Sara Sepe, Fabio Iannelli, Quan Nguyen, Sethuramasundaram Pitchiaya, Piero Carninci and Fabrizio d’Adda di Fagagna
The DNA damage response (DDR) involves site-specific small non-coding RNAs. Here the authors show that telomere dysfunction induces transcription of telomeric DNA damage response RNAs that are necessary for DDR activation, which can be specifically muted by antisense inhibitory oligonucleotides.
Pengtang Wang, Xu Zhang, Jin Zhang, Sheng Wan, Shaojun Guo, Gang Lu, Jianlin Yao and Xiaoqing Huang
Multicomponent, nanoscale heterostructures may exhibit notable catalytic properties imparted by the various building blocks. Here, the authors fabricate metal/sulfide heterostructures via direct sulfurization of segregated platinum-nickel nanowires, and assess their hydrogen evolution performance.
Guichuan Xing, Bo Wu, Xiangyang Wu, Mingjie Li, Bin Du, Qi Wei, Jia Guo, Edwin K. L. Yeow, Tze Chien Sum and Wei Huang
Slow bimolecular recombination in three-dimensional halide perovskites represents a fundamental limitation for electroluminescence efficiency. Using time-resolved spectroscopy Xing et al. demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by employing van-der-Waals-coupled multiple quantum well structures.
C. C. Ledón-Rettig, E. E. Zattara and A. P. Moczek
Sexual dimorphism is likely the result of differential gene expression. Here, the authors examine the role of the dsx gene in beetles and find that this gene acts in a sex- and tissue-specific manner, either by regulating sex-specific targets or by acting in opposite directions in males and females.
Emily L. Deaney, Stephen Barker and Tina van de Flierdt
Differences in the sequence and timing of ocean circulation changes across glacial terminations could affect the magnitude of deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise. Here, the authors argue that late ocean circulation recovery during the penultimate deglaciation (T2) led to a larger rise in CO2 compared with T1.
Xunmo Yang, Theo Keane, Milan Delor, Anthony J. H. M. Meijer, Julia Weinstein and Eric R. Bittner
Manipulating chemical reactions using laser pulses to control electron transfer is an attractive goal, however much of the underlying physics remains unexplored. Here the authors analyse and explain the intramolecular electronic transfer occurring during charge-separation in acetylene, a model donor-bridge-acceptor molecule.
Ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene over large areas is crucial for the future development of flexible electronics and optoelectronics. Using a rosin-assisted method, the authors transfer graphene with an ultraclean surface and uniform small sheet resistance—a 4-inch monolithic organic light-emitting diode is demonstrated.
Nicholas B. DeFelice, Eliza Little, Scott R. Campbell and Jeffrey Shaman
Since its introduction to the US in 1999, the West Nile virus (WNV) has become endemic in the Americas. Here, the authors develop a model of WNV transmission dynamics between birds, mosquitoes and humans, which they integrate in conjunction with data assimilation methods, mosquito infection data and reported human cases in a New York county to show its utility for forecasting infection rates.
Ernest Pastor, Florian Le Formal, Matthew T. Mayer, S. David Tilley, Laia Francàs, Camilo A. Mesa, Michael Grätzel and James R. Durrant
Understanding reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous (photo)electrochemical catalysts is key to improving solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies. Here the authors compare the mechanism of hydrogen evolution on ruthenium oxide as an electrocatalyst and as part of a photocathode via an optical/electrochemical approach.
Nana Luo, Jeffrey K. Weber, Shuang Wang, Binquan Luan, Hua Yue, Xiaobo Xi, Jing Du, Zaixing Yang, Wei Wei, Ruhong Zhou and Guanghui Ma
Polyethylene glycol has been widely utilized to functionalize nanomaterials in order to improve their biocompatibility. Here, the authors demonstrate that PEGylated nano-graphene oxide can elicit an inflammatory response, contradicting current literature.
Ray Keren, Boaz Mayzel, Adi Lavy, Iryna Polishchuk, Davide Levy, Sirine C. Fakra, Boaz Pokroy and Micha Ilan
The marine sponge Theonella swinhoei accumulates toxic arsenic and barium. Here the authors show that these toxic elements are actually accumulated and mineralized within vesicles inside bacteria that live within the sponge tissues.
Takafumi Suzuki, Shiori Seki, Keiichiro Hiramoto, Eriko Naganuma, Eri H. Kobayashi, Ayaka Yamaoka, Liam Baird, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Sato and Masayuki Yamamoto
Nrf2 regulates oxidative and electrophilic stress responses by modulating the expression of enzymes involved in detoxification pathways. Here Suzuki et al. show that Nrf2 activation in early tubular development promotes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by regulating aquaporin 2 expression and trafficking and water permeability.
Jacopo Grilli, Matteo Adorisio, Samir Suweis, György Barabás, Jayanth R. Banavar, Stefano Allesina and Amos Maritan
A central question in theoretical ecology is how diverse species can coexist in communities, and how that coexistence depends on network properties. Here, Grilli et al. quantify the extent of feasible coexistence of empirical networks, showing that it is smaller for trophic than mutualism networks.
Experimental demonstrations of topologically nontrivial states in magnetic films currently rely on indirect comparisons of theoretical models with microscopic images. Here the authors show that resonant X-ray scattering provides direct information on the topology of magnetic textures.
Huaxun Ye, Sanzhen Liu, Buyun Tang, Jiani Chen, Zhouli Xie, Trevor M. Nolan, Hao Jiang, Hongqing Guo, Hung-Ying Lin, Lei Li, Yanqun Wang, Hongning Tong, Mingcai Zhang, Chengcai Chu, Zhaohu Li, Maneesha Aluru, Srinivas Aluru, Patrick S. Schnable and Yanhai Yin
Brassinosteroid (BR) signalling regulates plant development via the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors. Here the authors show that BES1 activity can be modified by the drought-responsive RD26 transcription factor providing a molecular basis for the interaction between drought and BR signalling.
Kazuyoshi Takeda, Masafumi Nakayama, Yoshihiro Hayakawa, Yuko Kojima, Hiroaki Ikeda, Naoko Imai, Kouetsu Ogasawara, Ko Okumura, David M. Thomas and Mark J. Smyth
T cell mediated anti-tumour immune responses result in the emergence of an immune-resistant population in a process called immunoediting. Here, the authors show that immunoediting is associated with an increase in genomic rearrangements of tumour cells that requires both cytotoxic T cells and IFNγ exposure.
Theoretical ecologists have made disparate predictions regarding the relationship between mutualism and stability. Here, Pascual-García and Bastolla develop a theoretical framework showing that model mutualistic interactions promote structural stability when competition is weaker than a threshold depending on network architecture.
Non-syndromic cleft lip with palate is a common birth defect of unknown aetiology. Here, the authors discover 14 new genes associated with this condition, and show genetic heterogeneity in this and other non-syndromic orofacial clefting disorders.
Here Duan et al. demonstrate dynamic plasmonic colour displays using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing, restoration of colour and encoding of information.
Huai-Qiang Ju, Haoqiang Ying, Tian Tian, Jianhua Ling, Jie Fu, Yu Lu, Min Wu, Lifeng Yang, Abhinav Achreja, Gang Chen, Zhuonan Zhuang, Huamin Wang, Deepak Nagrath, Jun Yao, Mien-Chie Hung, Ronald A. DePinho, Peng Huang, Rui-Hua Xu and Paul J. Chiao
Kras activation and p16 inactivation cooperatively promote pancreatic cancer progression. Here, the authors show that such cooperation depends upon an increased expression of the NAD(P)H oxidase NOX4 achieved through transcription factors independently regulated by the two oncogenic genetic alterations.
Mengjie Yu, Jae K. Jang, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Austin G. Griffith, Kevin Luke, Steven A. Miller, Xingchen Ji, Michal Lipson and Alexander L. Gaeta
Breather solitons can be found in both physical and biological nonlinear systems. Here, Yu et al. demonstrate this type of soliton in silicon and silicon nitride microresonators, which advances the understanding of soliton-based comb-generation in microresonators.
Lu-Qi Tao, He Tian, Ying Liu, Zhen-Yi Ju, Yu Pang, Yuan-Quan Chen, Dan-Yang Wang, Xiang-Guang Tian, Jun-Chao Yan, Ning-Qin Deng, Yi Yang and Tian-Ling Ren
The functional integration of sound generation and detection on a single device is required to assist mute people. Here, the authors demonstrate a graphene-based artificial throat capable of detecting and converting diverse throat vibrations into meaningful sound within a single device.
Spin–orbit coupling produces spin–orbital-entanglement in quasiparticle eigenstates. Here, Yaji et al. present a general description of spin–orbital-entangled states and establish a model for dipole transition based on spin-dependent quantum interference, that permits optical spin control.
Stéphane Frémont, Hussein Hammich, Jian Bai, Hugo Wioland, Kerstin Klinkert, Murielle Rocancourt, Carlos Kikuti, David Stroebel, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne, Olena Pylypenko, Anne Houdusse and Arnaud Echard
Cytokinetic abscission relies on the local constriction after cytoskeleton disassembly, but it is not known how the actin filaments are disassembled. Here, the authors show that the redox enzyme MICAL1 is recruited by Rab35 and induces oxidation-mediated depolymerization of actin, which is required to recruit ESCRT-III and complete abscission.
Beilun Wu, Gaël Bastien, Mathieu Taupin, Carley Paulsen, Ludovic Howald, Dai Aoki and Jean-Pascal Brison
Experimental identification of pairing mechanism in unconventional superconductors is challenging. Here, Wu et al. show that the field dependence of the pairing strength influences the superconducting upper critical field in UCoGe, suggesting the dominant role of ferromagnetic spin fluctuations.
Mathieu Groussin, Florent Mazel, Jon G. Sanders, Chris S. Smillie, Sébastien Lavergne, Wilfried Thuiller and Eric J. Alm
Both host diet and phylogeny have been argued to shape mammalian microbiome communities. Here, the authors show that diet predicts the presence of ancient bacterial lineages in the microbiome, but that co-speciation between more recent bacterial lineages and their hosts may drive associations between microbiome composition and phylogeny.
An in-depth understanding of oxygen vacancy-driven effects is necessary for the development of functional ionic devices. Using simultaneous high-resolution imaging and resistance probing, Yao et al. demonstrate oxygen vacancy-driven structural and resistive transitions between three distinct phases in La2/3Sr1/3MnO3.
Anupama J. Thubagere, Chris Thachuk, Joseph Berleant, Robert F. Johnson, Diana A. Ardelean, Kevin M. Cherry and Lulu Qian
DNA circuits hold promise for advancing information-based molecular technologies, yet it is challenging to design and construct them in practice. Thubagere et al. build DNA strand displacement circuits using unpurified strands whose sequences are automatically generated from a user-friendly compiler.
Oren Ben Dor, Shira Yochelis, Anna Radko, Kiran Vankayala, Eyal Capua, Amir Capua, See-Hun Yang, Lech Tomasz Baczewski, Stuart Stephen Papworth Parkin, Ron Naaman and Yossi Paltiel
Spin manipulation in memory devices typically requires large electrical currents, limiting performance. Here the authors demonstrate magnetization switching in ferromagnetic films by depositing chiral molecules, making use of a proximity effect without needing magnetic or electric fields.
Mathias Uller Rothmann, Wei Li, Ye Zhu, Udo Bach, Leone Spiccia, Joanne Etheridge and Yi-Bing Cheng
Using low dose transmission electron microscopy, Rothmann, Li, Zhu et al. report direct evidence for twin domains in tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. The relevant scale and transition temperature of these twin domains could have implications for perovskite solar cells.
Jennifer B. Korosi, Joshua R. Thienpont, Michael F. J. Pisaric, Peter deMontigny, Joelle T. Perreault, Jamylynn McDonald, Myrna J. Simpson, Terry Armstrong, Steven V. Kokelj, John P. Smol and Jules M. Blais
Climate change can affect lake water level and nearby landscape. Korosi and colleagues show recent expansion of shallow lakes in the Canadian Northwest Territories is flooding critical habitat for the wood bison, and demonstrate the trickle-down effect of climate change on ecosystem functioning.
Emil Prodan, Kyle Dobiszewski, Alokik Kanwal, John Palmieri and Camelia Prodan
Properties of topological insulators can be realized in mechanical systems, opening potential applications of topological mechanics. Here, Prodan et al. report a dynamical topological Majorana edge mode in self-assembled chains of rigid bodies with particle-hole symmetry.
Marissa J. Schafer, Thomas A. White, Koji Iijima, Andrew J. Haak, Giovanni Ligresti, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Ann L. Oberg, Jodie Birch, Hanna Salmonowicz, Yi Zhu, Daniel L. Mazula, Robert W. Brooks, Heike Fuhrmann-Stroissnigg, Tamar Pirtskhalava, Y. S. Prakash, Tamara Tchkonia, Paul D. Robbins, Marie Christine Aubry, João F. Passos, James L. Kirkland et al.
Removal of senescent cells rejuvenates lungs of aged mice. Here the authors show that elimination of senescent cells using either genetic or pharmacological means improves lung function and physical health in a mouse model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), suggesting potential therapy for treatment of human IPF.
Xiao Zhang, Xueqian Li, Du Zhang, Neil Qiang Su, Weitao Yang, Henry O. Everitt and Jie Liu
Atmospheric CO2 can be transformed into valuable hydrocarbons by reaction with H2, but CO is the favoured kinetic product. Here, Liu and co-workers show that plasmonic rhodium nanoparticles not only reduce the activation energy for CO2 hydrogenation, but also photo-selectively produce methane.
To limit the accumulation of somatic mutations, renewing tissues must minimize the number of times each cell divides during differentiation. Here, the authors analytically derive the lower limit of lifetime divisional load of a tissue, show that hierarchically differentiating tissues can approach this limit, and that this depends on uneven divisional rates across the hierarchy.
Niraj Trivedi, Daniel R. Stabley, Blake Cain, Danielle Howell, Christophe Laumonnerie, Joseph S. Ramahi, Jamshid Temirov, Ryan A. Kerekes, Phillip R. Gordon-Weeks and David J. Solecki
Neuronal migration is vital for neuronal circuit morphogenesis and is thought to rely on microtubule-actomyosin crosstalk. Here, the authors use super-resolution imaging and the drebrin microtubule-actin crosslinking protein to show that microtubule-actomyosin coupling controls the direction of centrosome and somal motility.
Yasuyuki Kawaharada, Mette W. Nielsen, Simon Kelly, Euan K. James, Kasper R. Andersen, Sheena R. Rasmussen, Winnie Füchtbauer, Lene H. Madsen, Anne B. Heckmann, Simona Radutoiu and Jens Stougaard
The Lotus japonicus LysM receptor kinase EPR3 perceives rhizobial exopolysaccharides to initiate infection of the root epidermis. Here the authors show that EPR3 also mediates infection thread progression in the root cortex and show that key transcription factors that regulate symbiosis specify the expression of Epr3.
Hyang-Tag Lim, Emre Togan, Martin Kroner, Javier Miguel-Sanchez and Atac Imamoğlu
Artificial gauge fields promise a route to controlling topological properties of photonic systems but have only been realized by static design. Here, Lim et al. demonstrate that perpendicular electric and magnetic fields can effect dynamically controlled artificial gauge potentials for polaritons.
Peng Gao, Peter Metz, Trevyn Hey, Yuxuan Gong, Dawei Liu, Doreen D. Edwards, Jane Y. Howe, Rong Huang and Scott T. Misture
Two-dimensional solids are of interest for energy storage due to their large accessible surface area, enabling rapid charge/discharge. Here, the authors quantify the point defects in oxide nanosheets, demonstrating that intentional introduction of charged point defects improves the charge storage behaviour.
Kiho Bae, Dong Young Jang, Hyung Jong Choi, Donghwan Kim, Jongsup Hong, Byung-Kook Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Ji-Won Son and Joon Hyung Shim
Protonic ceramic fuel cells are promising for energy applications, but maintaining high performance with long-term stability is an issue. Here the authors use a stable yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte, achieving a power output one order of magnitude higher than existing protonic ceramic fuel cells.
Samanvaya Srivastava, Marat Andreev, Adam E. Levi, David J. Goldfeld, Jun Mao, William T. Heller, Vivek M. Prabhu, Juan J. de Pablo and Matthew V. Tirrell
At low concentration, uncharged amphiphilic block copolymers form discrete micelles. Here the authors show that triblock copolyelectrolytes can form phase separated gels at low concentrations, which can be useful in applications, such as, tissue engineering and water purification.
Jona Mijalkovic, Bram Prevo, Felix Oswald, Pierre Mangeol and Erwin J. G. Peterman
Cytoplasmic dynein 2 drives retrograde intraflagellar transport but little is known about its dynamics. Here the authors use fluorescence microscopy to track labelled dynein 2 in C. elegans at the single-molecule level and report diffusion at the ciliary base, and pausing and directional switches along the cilium.
Zhongxin Chen, Kai Leng, Xiaoxu Zhao, Souradip Malkhandi, Wei Tang, Bingbing Tian, Lei Dong, Lirong Zheng, Ming Lin, Boon Siang Yeo and Kian Ping Loh
Interface confined reactions are a viable strategy for achieving stable and selective catalysts. Here, the authors demonstrate that 1T'-enriched lithiated MoS2 can reduce metal ions in situ, forming zero valent platinum nanoparticle-intercalated MoS2, with enhanced hydrogen evolution activity.
Hongying Zhong, Juan Zhang, Xuemei Tang, Wenyang Zhang, Ruowei Jiang, Rui Li, Disong Chen, Peng Wang and Zhiwei Yuan
Monitoring interfacial electron transfer in photocatalytic systems is fundamentally important but experimentally challenging. Here the authors use mass spectrometry to detect and monitor intermediates formed through photoelectron transfer and to image active crystalline facets of semiconductor photocatalysts.
Zhiqiang Zhao, Zhaojun Zhang, Shu Liu and Dong H Zhang
The H+CH4 substitution reaction is the simplest reaction occurring via the Walden inversion mechanism. Here, the authors perform a theoretical study of the reaction and uncover the important effect of the umbrella motion of the non-reacting methyl group on the reaction dynamics.
Sari Kishikawa, Shintaro Sato, Satoshi Kaneto, Shigeo Uchino, Shinichi Kohsaka, Seiji Nakamura and Hiroshi Kiyono
M cells are intestinal epithelial cells that are specialized to transcytose antigens and bacteria from the intestinal lumen to antigen presenting cells on the other side. Here the authors show that the actin-binding protein Aif1 is highly expressed by intestinal M cells and regulates this transcytosis.
R. Ferrer, A. Barzakh, B. Bastin, R. Beerwerth, M. Block, P. Creemers, H. Grawe, R. de Groote, P. Delahaye, X. Fléchard, S. Franchoo, S. Fritzsche, L. P. Gaffney, L. Ghys, W. Gins, C. Granados, R. Heinke, L. Hijazi, M. Huyse, T. Kron et al.
It is challenging to explore properties of heavy elements as they can only be produced artificially. Here, the authors demonstrate a high resolution spectroscopy method, studying the properties of actinium, which can be extended to the study of other elements located at the end of the periodic table.
S. Poran, T. Nguyen-Duc, A. Auerbach, N. Dupuis, A. Frydman and Olivier Bourgeois
To detect thermodynamic signatures of quantum fluctuations for quantum phase transitions is challenging. Here, Poran et al. report a significant increase in the specific heat when the thickness of granular Pb films approaches a superconductor-insulator transition.
Katja Burk, Erik Mire, Anaïs Bellon, Mélanie Hocine, Jeremy Guillot, Filipa Moraes, Yutaka Yoshida, Michael Simons, Sophie Chauvet and Fanny Mann
Molecular mechanisms controlling axonal growth cone behaviour are only partially understood. Here the authors reveal a role of an adaptor protein GIPC1 in Plexin-D1 receptor recycling, and show that this process is required for axon track formation and vascular patterning in mice.
Ning Li, José Darío Perea, Thaer Kassar, Moses Richter, Thomas Heumueller, Gebhard J. Matt, Yi Hou, Nusret S. Güldal, Haiwei Chen, Shi Chen, Stefan Langner, Marvin Berlinghof, Tobias Unruh and Christoph J. Brabec
Li et al. study degradation in organic photovoltaics from a morphological perspective. They find that donor and acceptor phases undergo excessive demixing via spinodal decomposition resulting in a reduction of charge generation. Demixing is due to the inherently low miscibility of both materials.
Joel D. Cox, Andrea Marini and F. Javier García de Abajo
High-harmonic generation is a nonlinear optical phenomenon that may be harnessed towards realisation of ultrafast light sources. Here, the authors theoretically show that localized plasmons in graphene nanodisks result in broadband and electrically tunable high-harmonic generation.
Mohamed M. Ezat, Tine L. Rasmussen, Bärbel Hönisch, Jeroen Groeneveld and Peter deMenocal
Glacial-interglacial variations in atmospheric pCO2 remain unexplained. Here, the authors show that the Norwegian Sea, an modern area of intense CO2 uptake, acted as a CO2 source during the terminations of Heinrich stadials 1, 4 and 11, sometimes characterized by rapid increases in atmospheric pCO2.
Serif Senturk, Nitin H. Shirole, Dawid G. Nowak, Vincenzo Corbo, Debjani Pal, Alexander Vaughan, David A. Tuveson, Lloyd C. Trotman, Justin B. Kinney and Raffaella Sordella
CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing enables specific deletion of target genes. Here, Senturk et al. develop an inducible editing system by fusing a conditional destabilization domain to Cas9 and demonstrate temporal control of gene editing in response to a synthetic ligand.
Martin Wahlestedt, Eva Erlandsson, Trine Kristiansen, Rong Lu, Cord Brakebusch, Irving L. Weissman, Joan Yuan, Javier Martin-Gonzalez and David Bryder
Age-associated decline in tissue function has been linked to alterations in adult stem cells, with implications for organ homeostasis and cellular therapy. Here, the authors study the heterogeneity of ageing mouse haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and find that the compromised blood cell-forming potential of individual and functionally defined aged HSCs can be reset by reprogramming.
Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) act as molecular switches. Here the authors use NMR relaxation analyses, which reveal the dynamics of G protein alpha subunit binding to GDP on a microsecond timescale.
Mauricio D. Dorfman, Jordan E. Krull, John D. Douglass, Rachael Fasnacht, Fernando Lara-Lince, Thomas H. Meek, Xiaogang Shi, Vincent Damian, Hong T. Nguyen, Miles E. Matsen, Gregory J. Morton and Joshua P. Thaler
Unlike males, female mice are resistant to hypothalamic inflammation and weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Here, the authors reveal sex-specific regulation of hypothalamic microglial activation through CX3CR1 signalling, providing a potential mechanism for differential susceptibility to diet-induced obesity.
Yun Liu, Fan Yang, Yi Zhang, Jianping Xiao, Liang Yu, Qingfei Liu, Yanxiao Ning, Zhiwen Zhou, Hao Chen, Wugen Huang, Ping Liu and Xinhe Bao
Smaller nanostructures often have higher activities, but at the expense of losing chemical stability. Here, the authors find that reducing the size of FeO nanostructures to below 3 nm enhances their resistance to oxidation, and attribute this unexpected observation to a size-dependent, structural dynamics effect.
Gyda Bjornsdottir, Stefania Benonisdottir, Gardar Sveinbjornsson, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, G. Bragi Walters, Aron Bjornsson, Ingvar H. Olafsson, Elfar Ulfarsson, Arnor Vikingsson, Ragnheidur Hansdottir, Karl O. Karlsson, Thorunn Rafnar, Ingileif Jonsdottir, Michael L. Frigge, Augustine Kong, Asmundur Oddsson, Gisli Masson, Olafur T. Magnusson, Tomas Gudbjartsson et al.
Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) can cause persistent sciatica, and in some cases surgery is required to relieve symptoms. Here, the authors carry out a genome-wide association study using microdiscectomy as an indicator of severe LDH, and find a locus on chromosome 8 associated with this condition.
Alberto Vitale Brovarone, Isabelle Martinez, Agnès Elmaleh, Roberto Compagnoni, Carine Chaduteau, Cristiano Ferraris and Imène Esteve
Alteration of ultramafic rocks plays a role in hydrocarbon production, but little is known about this process at depth. Here, the authors provide evidence that alteration of carbonated ultramafic rocks at high-pressures are an important source of abiotic methanogenesis with implications for deep C mobility.
Anthony Ruth, Michitoshi Hayashi, Peter Zapol, Jixin Si, Matthew P. McDonald, Yurii V. Morozov, Masaru Kuno and Boldizsár Jankó
Fluorescence blinking has been recently observed in two-dimensional graphene oxide systems, yet its origin has so far remained elusive. Here, the authors unveil the nature of such long timescale emission intermittency and link it to the distribution of sp2 carbon domains.
Marc N. Wein, Yanke Liang, Olga Goransson, Thomas B. Sundberg, Jinhua Wang, Elizabeth A. Williams, Maureen J. O’Meara, Nicolas Govea, Belinda Beqo, Shigeki Nishimori, Kenichi Nagano, Daniel J. Brooks, Janaina S. Martins, Braden Corbin, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Joy Y. Wu, Kei Sakamoto, Marc Foretz, Ramnik J. Xavier et al.
This year's Frontiers in Biology Insight features Reviews on how genomics is helping to uncover the peopling of the world, the interplay between morphogens and morphogenesis in determining organismal shape, the factors that influence the immune response to cancer, advances in single-cell genomics, and the effects of base modifications in messenger RNA.
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