Monday, February 13, 2017

Nature Reviews Microbiology contents March 2017 Volume 15 Number 3 pp 129-192

Nature Reviews Microbiology

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March 2017 Volume 15 Number 3
Nature Reviews Microbiology cover
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In this issue
Research Highlights
News and Analysis
Consensus Statement

Also this month
Article series:
New technologies: methods and applications
 Featured article:
Consensus statement: Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics
Peter Simmonds et al.

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A sea change for virology
p129 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.13
This issue marks the publication of a Consensus Statement that proposes the integration of viruses that are only characterized by metagenomic data into virus taxonomy.

Full Text | PDF


Bacterial Pathogenesis: Microbial manipulation of the gut-brain axis
p131 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.9
This study shows that pathogen-mediated inhibition of sickness-induced anorexia can promote transmission and reduce virulence.


Viral infection: Competing membrane proteins regulate picornavirus genome delivery
p132 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.1
This study reveals that two host cell membrane proteins have contrasting roles during the transfer of picornavirus RNA into the cytoplasm.


Biofilms: Shocking biofilms
p132 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.6
This study highlights a heretofore unappreciated role of electrical signalling in biofilm communities and in their interaction with their environment.


Bacterial development: Streptomyces' cue to leave
p134 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.2
This study shows that co-culturing Streptomyces venezuelae with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae triggers a previously unknown growth mode in S. venezuelae that enables cells to explore their environment.


Viral infection: The language of phages
p134 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.8
The authors of this study report that phages of Bacillus species use a peptide-based communication system to decide whether to enter the lytic or lysogenic life cycle.



Structural biology: High-order integration | Metagenomics: Mining for CRISPR-Cas | Microbiome: Getting organized early in life | Parasite evolution: Adding a piece to the puzzle | Bacterial pathogenesis: A deadly chain of events

Finding the needle in the haystack
Gavin G. Rutledge & Cristina V. Ariani
p136 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2017.7
This month's Genome Watch discusses the potential of selective whole-genome amplification for overcoming the challenges of whole-genome sequencing of malaria parasites in clinical samples in which they are low in abundance.

Hit the right spots: cell cycle control by phosphorylated guanosines in alphaproteobacteria
Régis Hallez, Marie Delaby, Stefano Sanselicio & Patrick H. Viollier
p137 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.183
Recent studies have provided insights into the antagonistic roles of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) and the alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) in the regulation of the cell cycle in Alphaproteobacteria. In this Review, Viollier and colleagues discuss how those second messengers control the initiation of DNA replication and cytokinesis by modulating the synthesis and proteolysis of key regulators of the cell cycle.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

A journey into the brain: insight into how bacterial pathogens cross blood-brain barriers
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous & Xavier Nassif
p149 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.178
Bacteria have to overcome many obstacles to invade the meninges from the bloodstream. This Review considers how extracellular pathogens such as Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumoniae bypass the blood-brain barriers, the understanding of which may lead to improved methods for delivering drugs into the brain.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Consensus statement: Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics
Peter Simmonds, Mike J. Adams, Mária Benkő, Mya Breitbart, J. Rodney Brister, Eric B. Carstens, Andrew J. Davison, Eric Delwart, Alexander E. Gorbalenya, Balázs Harrach, Roger Hull, Andrew M.Q. King, Eugene V. Koonin, Mart Krupovic, Jens H. Kuhn, Elliot J. Lefkowitz, Max L. Nibert, Richard Orton, Marilyn J. Roossinck, Sead Sabanadzovic, Matthew B. Sullivan, Curtis A. Suttle, Robert B. Tesh, René A. van der Vlugt, Arvind Varsani & F. Murilo Zerbini
p161 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.177
Although viral sequences are important in taxonomy, classification has typically also required biological properties, thus excluding viruses that were identified by metagenomics. The proposals in this Consensus Statement, which are supported by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), enable viruses that are discovered by sequence alone to be incorporated into virus classification.

Abstract | Full Text | PDF | Supplementary information
Diversity and evolution of class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems
Sergey Shmakov, Aaron Smargon, David Scott, David Cox, Neena Pyzocha, Winston Yan, Omar O. Abudayyeh, Jonathan S. Gootenberg, Kira S. Makarova, Yuri I. Wolf, Konstantin Severinov, Feng Zhang & Eugene V. Koonin
p169 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.184
Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules that consist of a single multidomain protein. In this Analysis, using a computational pipeline, the authors discover three novel families of class 2 effectors that correspond to three new CRISPR-Cas subtypes and present a comprehensive census of class 2 systems that are encoded in complete and draft bacterial and archaeal genomes.

Abstract | Full Text | PDF | Supplementary information
Article series: New technologies: methods and applications
Clinical and biological insights from viral genome sequencing
Charlotte J. Houldcroft, Mathew A. Beale & Judith Breuer
p183 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.182
Sequencing viral DNA and RNA is an important part of clinical practice, although, so far, mostly subgenomic fragments have been sequenced. In this Opinion article, Houldcroft, Beale and Breuer highlight the potential that sequencing whole viral genomes has for clinical applications.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

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