Wednesday, February 1, 2017

Nature contents: 02 February 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 542 Issue 7639
This Week  
Demand decisions based on evidence, not ideology
Psychology can moderate our response to unsavoury actions such as the US ban on immigrants, but we should not let our appetite for dissent diminish.
Private weather data should not replace basic research
Earth-monitoring research missions should go on, despite commercial ventures
The time is ripe to reform the World Health Organization
As the public-health agency chooses a new leader, the media and politicians must be more realistic about what it can do.
World View  
The developing world needs more than numbers
Policymakers should read the contents of published papers and not just count them, says Dyna Rochmyaningsih.
Seven Days  
US turmoil, oil pipelines and a treason arrest
The week in science: 27 January–2 February 2017.
Research Highlights  
Planetary science: Pluto's dark equator explained | Genomics: Tomato flavour genes mapped | Climate change: Lasting heavy rains to come | Microbiology: Salmonella makes hosts eat | Materials: Metal–organic mix for air filters | Developmental biology: Human–pig embryo made | Neuroscience: How to separate memories cleanly | Ecology: Parasite controls another wasp | Climate change: Drop in coal use slows emissions
Sometimes, a drug can remedy a chemical imbalance or surgery can repair a structural failure, but there are times when there is no substitute for replacing a part with human tissue or an entire organ. Rapid advances in regenerative medicine are bringing that possibility closer to reality.
Produced with support from
News in Focus
Meet the scientists affected by Trump’s immigration ban
Order barring citizens of seven countries from entering the United States has left many confused and afraid.
Lauren Morello, Sara Reardon
  Gene drives thwarted by emergence of resistant organisms
Until this obstacle is overcome, the technology is unlikely to succeed in the wild.
Ewen Callaway
Astronomers explore uses for AI-generated images
Neural networks produce pictures to train image-recognition programs and scientific software.
Davide Castelvecchi
  Physicists doubt bold report of metallic hydrogen
Many researchers are sceptical of a paper claiming to have compressed hydrogen to a metallic state.
Davide Castelvecchi
Race to provide commercial weather data heats up
A movement to privatize Earth-observing satellites is gaining ground.
Jeff Tollefson
  World’s foremost institute on death and disease metrics gets massive cash boost
Centre evaluates how public-health spending can improve mortality rates and disease burden, but many countries still do not record how people die.
Declan Butler
What it would take to reach the stars
A wild plan is taking shape to visit the nearest planet outside our Solar System. Here’s how we could get to Proxima b.
Gabriel Popkin
How heat from the Sun can keep us all cool
As demand for air conditioning climbs, some see a solution in the very thing that makes us sweat: the Sun.
XiaoZhi Lim
Nature Podcast: 2 February 2017
Bird beaks show how evolution shifts gear, getting to Proxima b, and have physicists made metallic hydrogen?
Podcast Extra - Futures
Futures is Nature's weekly science fiction slot. Shamini Bundell reads you their favourite from January, 'The last robot' by S. L. Huang.
Nature Extra: Backchat January 2017
Project naming, the implications for science of Trump’s first days in office, and the perils of trying to reproduce others’ work.
Consider drug efficacy before first-in-human trials
Ethical review boards must focus on clinical promise as well as safety to hold the first tests of drugs in humans to a higher standard, say Jonathan Kimmelman and Carole Federico.
Jonathan Kimmelman, Carole Federico
Books and Arts  
Physics: The wave catchers
Davide Castelvecchi applauds an inside story on the discovery of gravitational waves.
Davide Castelvecchi
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Cognitive science: Dennett rides again
Dan Jones relishes the philosopher's latest exploration of minds and memes.
Dan Jones
Environment: China deploys big data to clear smog
Bo Zhang, Robert M. Hughes
  Gender equality: Boost prospects for women scientists
Pavel V. Ovseiko, Rohini M. Godbole, Jane Latimer
Inaccuracies: Axe science hype from social media
James M. Smoliga, Corinne J. Kendall
  African American scientist: Charles Henry Turner remembered
Charles I. Abramson
Publishing: Journals, do your own formatting
John P. Moore
Vera Rubin (1928–2016)
Observational astronomer who confirmed the existence of dark matter.
Neta A. Bahcall
The Internet of Things comes to the lab
The system of connecting machines and sensors is finally making its way into the laboratory, giving researchers peace of mind and restoring their work–life balance.
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Palaeontology: Tiny fossils in the animal family tree
Newly discovered microscopic fossils might shed light on the early evolution of the deuterostomes, the animal group that includes vertebrates. But more work is needed to resolve the fossils' place in the deuterostome tree.
Evolution: Catastrophe triggers diversification
An analysis of more than 2,000 species of bird provides insight into how the animals' diverse beak shapes evolved, and points to a single rare event as a trigger for the rapid initial divergence of avian lineages.
Cell biology: Organelle formation from scratch
Cellular organelles called peroxisomes aid metabolism, and defective peroxisome formation can cause disease. It emerges that peroxisomes can form de novo from the fusion of vesicles derived from two distinct organelle types.
Cognitive neuroscience: In search of lost time
Electrical stimulation of the human brain does not enhance memory, according to a report that is in apparent conflict with earlier work. But this discrepancy could enable deeper insight into brain dynamics by stimulating basic research.
Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height
Data from over 700,000 individuals reveal the identity of 83 sequence variants that affect human height, implicating new candidate genes and pathways as being involved in growth.
Identity and dynamics of mammary stem cells during branching morphogenesis
The formation of the branched epithelial network of the mouse mammary gland during puberty is driven by a heterogeneous population of stem cells at the terminal end buds of the epithelium.
Vigorous lateral export of the meltwater outflow from beneath an Antarctic ice shelf
The mechanism producing Antarctic meltwater at depth is elucidated and modelled.
Molecular mechanism for the regulation of yeast separase by securin
The crystal structure of yeast separase in complex with its inhibitor securin sheds light on the mechanism of inhibition, in which securin inhibits separase by inserting a short segment into the active site.
Gamma oscillations organize top-down signalling to hypothalamus and enable food seeking
Coordinated gamma oscillations in the lateral hypothalamus, lateral septum and medial prefrontal cortex are shown to drive food-seeking behaviour in mice independently of nutritional need and to organize firing of feeding behaviour-related hypothalamic neurons.
Ecosystem restoration strengthens pollination network resilience and function
Removal of invasive exotic shrubs from mountaintop communities increased the number of pollinators and positively altered pollinator behaviour, which enhanced native fruit production, indicating that the degradation of ecosystem functions is partly reversible.
Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China)
Saccorhytus coronarius are millimetric fossils from the early Cambrian period in China that are proposed to represent the most basal known deuterostomes.
Mega-evolutionary dynamics of the adaptive radiation of birds
A study of more than 2,000 bird species shows that diversity in bill shape expands towards extreme morphologies early in avian evolution in a series of major jumps, before switching to a second phase in which bills repeatedly evolve similar shapes by subdividing increasingly tight regions of already occupied niche space.
Feedback control of AHR signalling regulates intestinal immunity
Cytochrome P4501 enzymes have a role in the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand levels in the gut, affecting innate lymphoid and TH17 cell responses.
Newly born peroxisomes are a hybrid of mitochondrial and ER-derived pre-peroxisomes
Peroxisomes—tiny intracellular organelles that contain metabolic enzymes—are generated in mammalian cells by the fusion of structures that arise from both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum.
Erratum: Reducing phosphorus accumulation in rice grains with an impaired transporter in the node
News and Views  
Cancer: Double trouble for tumours
Giulia Biffi, David A. Tuveson
Imaging techniques: Nanoparticle atoms pinpointed
Michael Farle
Medicine: The final frontier in cancer diagnosis
Sancy A. Leachman, Glenn Merlino
Nature Outlook: Precision Medicine

Health care that is tailored on the basis of an individual's genes, lifestyle or environment, is not a modern concept. But advances in genetics and the growing availability of health data for researchers and physicians promise to make this new era of medicine more personalized than ever before.

Access the Outlook free online

Sponsored by:
Illumina, Inc. 
50 & 100 Years Ago
Ecology: Vast peatlands found in the Congo Basin
Lola Fatoyinbo
Structural biology: Growth factor rattled out of its cage
Taekjip Ha
Earth science: Making a mountain out of a plateau
Hugh Sinclair
Force interacts with macromolecular structure in activation of TGF-β
Integrin αVβ6 binds the transforming growth factor-β1 precursor (pro-TGF-β1) in an orientation that is biologically relevant for force-dependent release of TGF-β from its latent form.
Xianchi Dong, Bo Zhao, Roxana E. Iacob et al.
IL-17 is a neuromodulator of Caenorhabditis elegans sensory responses
Interleukin-17 functions as a neuromodulator in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, acting directly on RMG hub interneurons to alter their response properties and contribution to behaviour.
Changchun Chen, Eisuke Itakura, Geoffrey M. Nelson et al.
The role of fatty acid β-oxidation in lymphangiogenesis
The lymphangiogenic factor PROX1 transcriptionally upregulates CPT1A, a rate-controlling enzyme in fatty acid β-oxidation, and this co-regulates lymphatic endothelial cell differentiation by epigenetic control of lymphatic gene expression, demonstrating a role for metabolism in developmental biology.
Brian W. Wong, Xingwu Wang, Annalisa Zecchin et al.
Structure of a eukaryotic cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel
The first high-resolution (3.5 Å) structure of a full-length cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel, revealing an unconventional, voltage-insensitive voltage-sensor domain and a unique coupling mechanism between cyclic-nucleotide-binding and pore-opening.
Minghui Li, Xiaoyuan Zhou, Shu Wang et al.
Spin–orbit-coupled fermions in an optical lattice clock
Spin–orbit coupling is implemented in an optical lattice clock using a narrow optical transition in fermionic 87Sr atoms, thus mitigating the heating problems of previous experiments with alkali atoms and offering new prospects for future investigations.
S. Kolkowitz, S. L. Bromley, T. Bothwell et al.
A competitive inhibitory circuit for selection of active and passive fear responses
Competitive circuits in the amygdala of mice drive either freezing or flight behaviour in response to threat, and involve distinct neuronal subtypes.
Jonathan P. Fadok, Sabine Krabbe, Milica Markovic et al.
MATRILINEAL, a sperm-specific phospholipase, triggers maize haploid induction
A frame-shift mutation in MATRILINEAL, a pollen-specific phospholipase, triggers haploid induction in maize, which may be useful in developing improved haploid induction systems for crop breeding.
Timothy Kelliher, Dakota Starr, Lee Richbourg et al.
Ultrafast nonthermal photo-magnetic recording in a transparent medium
Ultrafast photo-magnetic recording in transparent films of the dielectric cobalt-substituted garnet has very low heat load and is much faster than existing alternatives.
A. Stupakiewicz, K. Szerenos, D. Afanasiev et al.
Elevation alters ecosystem properties across temperate treelines globally
Examination of the ecosystem properties of treeline ecotones in seven temperate regions of the world shows that the reduction in temperature with increasing elevation does not affect tree leaf nutrient concentrations, but does reduce ground-layer community-weighted plant nitrogen levels, leading to a strong stoichiometric convergence of ground-layer plant community nitrogen to phosphorus ratios across all regions.
Jordan R. Mayor, Nathan J. Sanders, Aimée T. Classen et al.
Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions
Substitution of a ligand in molybdenum-based complexes enables typically inert hexafluorobutene to participate in Z-selective olefin cross-metathesis reactions.
Ming Joo Koh, Thach T. Nguyen, Jonathan K. Lam et al.
Deciphering chemical order/disorder and material properties at the single-atom level
The three-dimensional coordinates of more than 23,000 atoms in an iron-platinum nanoparticle are determined with 22 picometre precision to correlate chemical order/disorder and crystal defects with magnetic properties.
Yongsoo Yang, Chien-Chun Chen, M. C. Scott et al.
Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex
Field measurements combined with remotely sensed data reveal the Cuvette Centrale in the central Congo Basin to contain the most extensive peatland complex in the tropics, increasing the best estimate of global tropical peatland carbon stocks by approximately one-third.
Greta C. Dargie, Simon L. Lewis, Ian T. Lawson et al.
Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale genomes provide insights into malaria parasite evolution OPEN
The genome sequences of the neglected human-infective malaria species Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale provide new insights into their biology that are pertinent to understanding their epidemiology and to the broader agenda of malaria elimination.
Gavin G. Rutledge, Ulrike Böhme, Mandy Sanders et al.
Pathologically expanded peripheral T helper cell subset drives B cells in rheumatoid arthritis
The authors identify in patients with rheumatoid arthritis a pathogenic subset of CD4+ T cells that augments B cell responses within inflamed tissues.
Deepak A. Rao, Michael F. Gurish, Jennifer L. Marshall et al.
Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks
An artificial intelligence trained to classify images of skin lesions as benign lesions or malignant skin cancers achieves the accuracy of board-certified dermatologists.
Andre Esteva, Brett Kuprel, Roberto A. Novoa et al.
Genomic deletion of malic enzyme 2 confers collateral lethality in pancreatic cancer
Depletion of malic enzyme 3 in pancreatic cancer cells that have a deletion of the gene for malic enzyme 2 selectively kills the cells, suggesting that the enzyme might represent a therapeutic target for this subset of cancers.
Prasenjit Dey, Joelle Baddour, Florian Muller et al.
Corrigendum: Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA matching shapes metabolism and healthy ageing
Ana Latorre-Pellicer, Raquel Moreno-Loshuertos, Ana Victoria Lechuga-Vieco et al.
Corrigendum: PI3Kγ is a molecular switch that controls immune suppression
Megan M. Kaneda, Karen S. Messer, Natacha Ralainirina et al.
Erratum: A renewed model of pancreatic cancer evolution based on genomic rearrangement patterns
Faiyaz Notta, Michelle Chan-Seng-Yue, Mathieu Lemire et al.
Careers & Jobs
Look before you leap
Peter Fiske
Turning point: Microbe detective
Virginia Gewin
The last passenger pigeon
Hope springs eternal.
Joy Kennedy-O'Neill
  Science jobs of the week


postdoctoral researcher


Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology 


Postdoctoral Researcher (m / f)


University of Cologne 


Department Chair – Biology


Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan 


Two Tenure-Track Faculty Positions


University of Saskatchewan Canada 


No matter what your career stage, student, postdoc or senior scientist, you will find articles on to help guide you in your science career. Keep up-to-date with the latest sector trends, vote in our reader poll and sign-up to receive the monthly Naturejobs newsletter.

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2017 StratCan Interactive Summer School on Cancer Genomics


13.06.17 Stockholm, Sweden


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