npj 2D Materials and Applications is an online-only, open access journal that aims to become a top-tier interdisciplinary platform for scientists to share research on 2D materials and their applications.
Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, npj 2D Materials and Applications is published in partnership with FCT NOVA, Lisbon, with the support of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS). The journal is now open for submissions.
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As of January 2016, the journal only publishes open access content, and legacy subscription content published in Nature Communications prior to 2016 has been made freely accessible. For more information visit our website.
Rachael C. Kuintzle, Eileen S. Chow, Tara N. Westby, Barbara O. Gvakharia, Jadwiga M. Giebultowicz and David A Hendrix
Disruption of circadian rhythms leads to reduced healthspan, but the mechanisms by which the normal clock protects aging organisms are not known. Here, the authors show that a subset of genes becomes more rhythmically expressed in older flies, and these are enriched for response to oxidative stress.
Marco Bardoscia, Stefano Battiston, Fabio Caccioli and Guido Caldarelli
The spread of instabilities in financial systems, similarly to ecosystems, is influenced by topological features of the underlying network structures. Here the authors show, independently of specific financial models, that market integration and diversification can drive the system towards instability.
Christian Büchel, Jan Peters, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L. W. Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Patricia J. Conrod, Herta Flor, Dimitri Papadopoulos, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Bernd Ittermann, Karl Mann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Luise Poustka et al.
Some adolescents seek novelty, but it is unknown whether the brain circuits underlying this behaviour can be used to predict later, problematic behaviour. Here, authors show that diminished ventral striatal and prefrontal activity in response to anticipated rewards at age 14 in these individuals predicts problematic drug use at age 16.
Douglas J. Kennett, Stephen Plog, Richard J. George, Brendan J. Culleton, Adam S. Watson, Pontus Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Kristin Stewardson, Logan Kistler, Steven A. LeBlanc, Peter M. Whiteley, David Reich and George H. Perry
In ancient cultures without a writing system, it is difficult to infer the basis of status and rank. Here the authors analyse ancient DNA from nine presumed elite individuals buried successively over a 300-year period at Chaco Canyon, and show evidence of matrilineal relationships.
Once a purely mathematical discipline, topology has become an essential tool to investigate physical phenomena such as topological states in liquid crystals. Posnjak et al. observe the existence of 3D point defects of higher than unit topological charge in thermally quenched chiral nematic droplets.
Ramon Guixà-González, José L. Albasanz, Ismael Rodriguez-Espigares, Manuel Pastor, Ferran Sanz, Maria Martí-Solano, Moutusi Manna, Hector Martinez-Seara, Peter W. Hildebrand, Mairena Martín and Jana Selent
G-protein-coupled receptors trigger several signalling pathways and their activity was proposed to be allosteric modulated by cholesterol. Here the authors use molecular dynamics simulations and ligand binding assays to show that membrane cholesterol can bind to adenosine A2A receptor orthosteric site.
Eunji Kim, Taeyoung Koo, Sung Wook Park, Daesik Kim, Kyoungmi Kim, Hee-Yeon Cho, Dong Woo Song, Kyu Jun Lee, Min Hee Jung, Seokjoong Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim and Jin-Soo Kim
The amount of genetic material that can be packaged in AAV vectors used for genome editing is limited. Here the authors show that the smallest known Cas9 orthologue, cjCas9, can be packaged in a single AAV vector along with sgRNA and a marker gene, and demonstrate efficient gene editing in mice.
Shan Gao, Zhongti Sun, Wei Liu, Xingchen Jiao, Xiaolong Zu, Qitao Hu, Yongfu Sun, Tao Yao, Wenhua Zhang, Shiqiang Wei and Yi Xie
The role of oxygen vacancies in carbon dioxide reduction remains somewhat unclear. Here, the authors fabricate vacancy-rich and vacancy-poor Co3O4 single-unit-cell layers, and demonstrate by X-ray absorption and DFT that the material is a promising platform for mechanistic studies of carbon dioxide reduction.
Yanjun Fang, Haotong Wei, Qingfeng Dong and Jinsong Huang
Fang et al. develop a method to determine the photon recycling efficiency for organic-inorganic hybrid single crystal perovskites by differentiating between emitted and re-absorbed photons based on their polarization difference. For these systems efficiencies of less than 0.5% are reported.
Peter O. Hopcroft, Paul J. Valdes, Fiona M. O’Connor, Jed O. Kaplan and David J. Beerling
The cause of the increase in atmospheric methane from 375 p.p.b.v. during the last ice age to 680 p.p.b.v. at the onset of Industrialization remains uncertain. Here, using an Earth system model, the authors show that we cannot reconcile this rise based on our current understanding of natural methane sources.
Adrian Vallejo, Naiara Perurena, Elisabet Guruceaga, Pawel K. Mazur, Susana Martinez-Canarias, Carolina Zandueta, Karmele Valencia, Andrea Arricibita, Dana Gwinn, Leanne C. Sayles, Chen-Hua Chuang, Laura Guembe, Peter Bailey, David K. Chang, Andrew Biankin, Mariano Ponz-Sarvise, Jesper B. Andersen, Purvesh Khatri, Aline Bozec, E. Alejandro Sweet-Cordero et al.
KRAS-driven cancers remain refractory to current clinical therapies. In this study, the authors show that lung and pancreatic cancers expressing oncogenic KRAS can be targeted by genetic inhibition of FOSL1, which involves downregulation of genes of the mitotic machinery.
Mark Lucanic, W. Todd Plummer, Esteban Chen, Jailynn Harke, Anna C. Foulger, Brian Onken, Anna L. Coleman-Hulbert, Kathleen J. Dumas, Suzhen Guo, Erik Johnson, Dipa Bhaumik, Jian Xue, Anna B. Crist, Michael P. Presley, Girish Harinath, Christine A. Sedore, Manish Chamoli, Shaunak Kamat, Michelle K. Chen, Suzanne Angeli et al.
Irreproducibility of biological findings is a major challenge for drug development. Here the authors examine the lifespans of 22 worm strains in three different laboratories and the effects of ten known chemicals to assess reproducibility in the face of variations in genetic background, chemical treatment and lab environment.
Ciara C M. Lally, Brian Bauer, Jana Selent and Martha E Sommer
The activity of G-protein-coupled receptors is regulated by their interaction with arrestins. Here the authors show that loops located on C-edge of arrestin-1 serve as a membrane anchor during the multi-step binding process that leads to a stable receptor–arrestin complex.
Cheng Xu, Jindřich Kynický, Martin P. Smith, Antonin Kopriva, Martin Brtnický, Tomas Urubek, Yueheng Yang, Zheng Zhao, Chen He and Wenlei Song
Heavy rare earth elements (HREE) are an important global resource for many industries. Here, Xu et al. have discovered new REE minerals, which represent oxidized REE-rich fluids that metasomatized granites resulting in an enrichment of HREE, therefore contributing to our knowledge of global REE resources.
Meghan S. Vermillion, Jun Lei, Yahya Shabi, Victoria K. Baxter, Nathan P. Crilly, Michael McLane, Diane E. Griffin, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L. Klein and Irina Burd
Zika virus infection of pregnant women is associated with congenital neurological disorders. Here, Vermillion et al. develop an immunocompetent mouse model for identification of factors at the maternal-fetal interface that contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes.
Janet Lau, Jeanne Cheung, Armando Navarro, Steve Lianoglou, Benjamin Haley, Klara Totpal, Laura Sanders, Hartmut Koeppen, Patrick Caplazi, Jacqueline McBride, Henry Chiu, Rebecca Hong, Jane Grogan, Vincent Javinal, Robert Yauch, Bryan Irving, Marcia Belvin, Ira Mellman, Jeong M. Kim and Maike Schmidt et al.
PD-L1, the ligand for T-cell inhibitory receptor PD-1, can be expressed by various cell types in the tumour microenvironment. Here, the authors show that, in mouse models, the expression of PD-L1 from both cancerous and normal host immune cells is important for suppressing anti-tumour immune responses.
Songmi Han, Aerin Yang, Soonjang Lee, Han-Woong Lee, Chan Bae Park and Hee-Sung Park
Expanding the genetic code with unnatural amino acids in model organisms is a powerful tool for investigating in vivo cellular proteins and processes. Here the authors re-engineer the amber stop codon in laboratory mice to allow site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in target proteins.
Victoria A. Lukashkina, Snezana Levic, Andrei N. Lukashkin, Nicola Strenzke and Ian J. Russell
A point mutation in the gap-junction protein connexin 30 stops early onset age-related hearing loss. Here, the authors show that gap junctions contribute to cochlear micromechanics and that cochlear amplification is likely controlled by extracellular potentials in vicinity of the cochlear sensory cells.
Antonio Bauzá, Antonio Frontera and Tiddo J. Mooibroek
The nitrate anion, NO3−, is typically thought of as an electron-donating molecular moiety. Here the authors reveal, however, that when the negative charge on NO3− is smeared out over a large enough area, a positive potential emerges on N that can act as a Lewis acid in the solid state.
Megumi Yamashita, Priscilla S.-W. Yeung, Christopher E. Ing, Beth A. McNally, Régis Pomès and Murali Prakriya
Store-operated Ca2+ channels (CRAC) are involved in several cellular functions. Here the authors identify a hydrophobic gate in the CRAC pore and show that CRAC activation by STIM1 involves rotation of the pore helix that hydrates this region to allow ion passage through the pore.
Tristan Geiller, Mohammad Fattahi, June-Seek Choi and Sébastien Royer
Environmental cues affect the way mouse hippocampal place cells respond, but whether this information is integrated versus segregated in distinct hippocampal cell populations is unclear. Here, the authors record neuronal activity in the hippocampus of mice on a treadmill enriched with visual-tactile landmarks, and show anatomically segregated cells with variable ties to the cues.
Meng Li, De-Gang Xie, Evan Ma, Ju Li, Xi-Xiang Zhang and Zhi-Wei Shan
Hydrogen gas can drive detachment of protective surface oxides from metal substrates and this process is accelerated at moderately elevated temperatures relevant to applications. Here the authors use environmental transmission electron microscopy to monitor associated void coalescence processes and clarify roles that diffusion and hydrogen-vacancy complexes play.
Christelle Glangetas, Léma Massi, Giulia R. Fois, Marion Jalabert, Delphine Girard, Marco Diana, Keisuke Yonehara, Botond Roska, Chun Xu, Andreas Lüthi, Stéphanie Caille and François Georges
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is known to modulate anxiety-related behaviours. Here the authors show that excitatory inputs from infralimbic cortex and ventral subiculum/CA1 converge onto the same BNST neurons; stimulation of vSUB/CA1 triggers LTP in BNST and reduces anxiety in rats.
Stefan Pfeffer, Johanna Dudek, Miroslava Schaffer, Bobby G. Ng, Sahradha Albert, Jürgen M. Plitzko, Wolfgang Baumeister, Richard Zimmermann, Hudson H. Freeze, Benjamin D. Engel and Friedrich Förster
The translocon-associated protein complex (TRAP) is a crucial component of the endoplasmic reticulum protein translocon. Here the authors study native translocon structures from human disease patients and algae cells to determine the molecular organization of the TRAP complex.
Yu Zhou, Abdullah Rasmita, Ke Li, Qihua Xiong, Igor Aharonovich and Wei-bo Gao
Silicon vacancy centres in diamond have been identified as potential highly efficient solid-state qubits for on-chip integration. Here, Zhou et al. demonstrate coherent control of silicon vacancy centres in nanodiamonds and observe Autler-Townes splitting, Mollow triplet and Rabi oscillations.
Minh Duc Cao, Son Hoang Nguyen, Devika Ganesamoorthy, Alysha G. Elliott, Matthew A. Cooper and Lachlan J. M. Coin
Assembling genomes using currently available computational methods can be time consuming. Here, Coin and colleagues describe a bioinformatics tool named npScarf that can scaffold and complete an existing short read assembly in real-time using nanopore sequencing.
Zijiao Zhang, Hongwei Sheng, Zhangjie Wang, Bernd Gludovatz, Ze Zhang, Easo P. George, Qian Yu, Scott X. Mao and Robert O. Ritchie
Materials that show twinning-induced plasticity can offer unusual combinations of strength and ductility. Here, authors study deformation twinning and dislocation behaviour in a medium-entropy alloy CrCoNi and find a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical twin network that forms from the activation of three twinning systems.
D. F. Zhao, A. Buchholz, R. Tillmann, E. Kleist, C. Wu, F. Rubach, A. Kiendler-Scharr, Y. Rudich, J. Wildt and Th. F. Mentel
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by vegetation influence cloud formation, yet the impact of environmental stresses remains little known. Here, manipulation experiments reveal insect infestation and heat stress are linked to induced VOC and constitutive VOC emissions shifts, respectively.
Sheryl R. Bowley, Chao Fang, Glenn Merrill-Skoloff, Barbara C. Furie and Bruce Furie
What keeps blood from clotting in homeostasis is a puzzle. Here, the authors suggest that lack of the enzyme disulfide isomerase (PDI) in the blood is key, and show that PDI is secreted only after vascular injury to act on substrates that include vitronectin, affecting its binding to αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrins and enabling thrombus formation.
Junwoo Lee, Eun Shik Choi, Hogyu David Seo, Keunsoo Kang, Joshua M. Gilmore, Laurence Florens, Michael P. Washburn, Joonho Choe, Jerry L. Workman and Daeyoup Lee
Nucleosomes have been shown to impede the elongation of RNA polymerase II during transcription. Here, the authors provide evidence that in fission yeast chromatin remodeller Fun30Fft3 localizes to transcribing regions to promote transcription by nucleosome disassembly in vivo.
Ferzin Sethna, Wei Feng, Qi Ding, Alfred J. Robison, Yue Feng and Hongbing Wang
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading cause of autism and neurons lacking FMRP show aberrant mRNA translation and intracellular signalling. Here, the authors show that neurons from Fmr1 knockout mice have increased levels of ADCY1 protein, producing abnormal ERK1/2 signalling, dysregulated protein synthesis and behavioural symptoms associated with FXS.
Limin Xiang, Julio L. Palma, Yueqi Li, Vladimiro Mujica, Mark A. Ratner and Nongjian Tao
Thanks to its base stacking structure, DNA can behave as an electric wire, but external control of its electronic properties has not been achieved yet. Here, the authors show that DNA conductance can be switched electrochemically when a DNA base is replaced by the redox molecule anthraquinone.
Jin Liu, Nicolas Dauphas, Mathieu Roskosz, Michael Y. Hu, Hong Yang, Wenli Bi, Jiyong Zhao, Esen E. Alp, Justin Y. Hu and Jung-Fu Lin
Terrestrial basalts have a unique iron isotopic signature taken as fingerprints of core formation. Here, high pressure studies show that force constants of iron bonds increase with pressure similarly for silicate and metals suggesting interplanetary isotopic variability is not due to core formation.
E. Garlatti, T. Guidi, S. Ansbro, P. Santini, G. Amoretti, J. Ollivier, H. Mutka, G. Timco, I. J. Vitorica-Yrezabal, G. F. S. Whitehead, R. E. P. Winpenny and S. Carretta
Showing the presence of quantum entanglement in a system means it is beyond a classical description, but this is difficult to do experimentally. Here, the authors show how four-dimensional inelastic neutron scattering can quantify entanglement, demonstrating the method on a supramolecular dimer.
Heng-Yun Ye, Wei-Qiang Liao, Qionghua Zhou, Yi Zhang, Jinlan Wang, Yu-Meng You, Jin-Yun Wang, Zhong-Ning Chen, Peng-Fei Li, Da-Wei Fu, Songping D. Huang and Ren-Gen Xiong
Molecular recognition is an important biological process where guest and host molecules interact through non-covalent bonding. Ye et al. show that this can be sensed by the dielectric and ferroelectric signals of the final complexes in a series of metal-coordination compounds with different diol molecules.
Zhan Xu, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Guang Yan, Heng Feng, Jun Sun, Sutada Lotinun, Nicholas Brady, Roland Baron, Laurie H. Glimcher and Weiguo Zou
The balance between osteoclast and osteoblast-mediated bone turnover is essential for bone health and homeostasis. Here the authors show that both germline and osteoblast-specific Smurf2-deficient mice have osteoporosis as a result of increased osteoblast RANKL production and excess osteoclastogenesis.
Sarah L. White, Progna Banerjee and Prashant K. Jain
Copper selenide is super-ionic only at high temperatures. Here, the authors discover room temperature super-ionic behaviour in ultrasmall clusters of Cu2Se—but not in its larger or bulk forms—owing to an unusual liquid-like cationic sub-lattice, in which octahedral sites are stabilized by size-dependent compressive strain.
Biswajit Datta, Santanu Dey, Abhisek Samanta, Hitesh Agarwal, Abhinandan Borah, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Rajdeep Sensarma and Mandar M. Deshmukh
Few-layered graphene offers a powerful platform to investigate electronic interactions beyond the non-interacting electron picture approximation. Here, the authors report the signature of strong electronic interactions and quantum Hall ferromagnetism in trilayer graphene with ABA stacking.
Jiří Tuček, Kateřina Holá, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Piotr Błoński, Aristides Bakandritsos, Juri Ugolotti, Matúš Dubecký, František Karlický, Václav Ranc, Klára Čépe, Michal Otyepka and Radek Zbořil
Developing room-temperature magnets from materials containing only sp orbitals has remained an elusive but important goal. Here, Zbořil and co-workers report hydroxofluorographenes that exhibit room-temperature antiferromagnetic ordering and low-temperature ferromagnetic behaviour with high magnetic moments.
Sebastian H Bitzenhofer, Joachim Ahlbeck, Amy Wolff, J. Simon Wiegert, Christine E. Gee, Thomas G. Oertner and Ileana L. Hanganu-Opatz
Oscillations in cortical activity during development are important for functional maturation. Here, the authors use optogenetics in neonatal mice to determine a causal role for pyramidal cell firing in different prelimbic cortex layers in generating beta–gamma range activity.
Pavan Ramdya, Robin Thandiackal, Raphael Cherney, Thibault Asselborn, Richard Benton, Auke Jan Ijspeert and Dario Floreano
Numerous selective forces shape animal locomotion patterns and as a result, different animals evolved to use different gaits. Here, Ramdya et al. use live and in silico Drosophila, as well as an insect-model robot, to gain insights into the conditions that promote the ubiquitous tripod gait observed in most insects.
Alicia J. Kollár, Alexander T. Papageorge, Varun D. Vaidya, Yudan Guo, Jonathan Keeling and Benjamin L. Lev
When a single mode optical cavity is coupled to a Bose-Einstein condensate, one usually observes a single mode of light when strongly pumped. Here the authors observe a supermode in the output of a multimode cavity and relate this to a signature of a nonequilibrium condensation phase transition.
Hector Salazar, Clarissa Eibl, Miriam Chebli and Andrew Plested
Partial agonists weakly activate receptors even when occupying all available binding sites. Here the authors show that partial agonists of the AMPA receptor drive the adoption of multiple inactive forms, accounting for their limited efficacy.
Ryuichi Fukuda, Felix Gunawan, Arica Beisaw, Vanesa Jimenez-Amilburu, Hans-Martin Maischein, Sawa Kostin, Koichi Kawakami and Didier Y. R. Stainier
Proper heart development and synchronous cardiomyocyte contraction rely on tissue integrity. Here the authors show that the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the E3 ubiquitin ligase ASB2 in particular are crucial for cardiomyocyte maturation and tissue integrity through the degradation of the TCF3 transcription factor.
Intraplate earthquakes occur far from tectonic plate boundaries and so it is vital to understand how and where they may happen. Here, Levandowski et al. create a 3D density map of the North America Great Plains showing that gravitational forces play a controlling role in intraplate earthquake locations.
Mark O. McLinden, J. Steven Brown, Riccardo Brignoli, Andrei F. Kazakov and Piotr A. Domanski
With societies phasing down the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), alternative environmentally-friendly refrigerants are required. Here the authors screen a large chemical database for replacements, performing simulations to show there are only a few candidate single-component fluids that can realistically replace HFCs.
Wouter Engelen, Lenny H. H. Meijer, Bram Somers, Tom F. A. de Greef and Maarten Merkx
Existing DNA based circuits, designed to perform logic operations and signal processing, are generally responsive to DNA or RNA inputs. Here, the authors show that antibodies can actuate DNA logic gates, opening the way to applications of DNA computing in diagnostics and biomedicine.
Steven R. Sellers, Weining Man, Shervin Sahba and Marian Florescu
The interaction between photonic bandgap materials and light is largely determined by the wavelength-scale material structure. Here, Sellers et al. develop a new metric of network structural order and demonstrate its connection to the photonic bandgap of an amorphous gyroid network.
Y. Kasahara, Y. Takeuchi, R. H. Zadik, Y. Takabayashi, R. H. Colman, R. D. McDonald, M. J. Rosseinsky, K. Prassides and Y. Iwasa
Alkali-doped fullerides are superconductors but the impact of dimensionality and electron correlation remains unclear. Here, Kasahara et al. report an upper critical field about 90 T, suggesting cooperative interplay between molecular electronic structure and strong electron correlations.
Ilkka Hanski, Torsti Schulz, Swee Chong Wong, Virpi Ahola, Annukka Ruokolainen and Sami P. Ojanen
Habitat fragmentation can lead to extinction even when some habitat remains. Here, the authors model the metapopulation dynamics of the Glanville fritillary butterfly and show that persistence depends on spatial configuration and quality of the habitat, as well as on genotype-associated dispersal rate.
Hong Xu, Marco Di Antonio, Steven McKinney, Veena Mathew, Brandon Ho, Nigel J. O’Neil, Nancy Dos Santos, Jennifer Silvester, Vivien Wei, Jessica Garcia, Farhia Kabeer, Daniel Lai, Priscilla Soriano, Judit Banáth, Derek S. Chiu, Damian Yap, Daniel D. Le, Frank B. Ye, Anni Zhang, Kelsie Thu et al.
Stabilization of DNA quadruplex structures (G4) is lethal for cells with a compromised DNA repair pathway. Here, the authors show that CX-5461, a small molecule in clinical trials as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has G4-stablization properties and can be repurposed to target DNA repair-defective cancers cells.
Reimar Krieg, Esther Jortzik, Alice-Anne Goetz, Stéphanie Blandin, Sergio Wittlin, Mourad Elhabiri, Mahsa Rahbari, Selbi Nuryyeva, Kerstin Voigt, Hans-Martin Dahse, Axel Brakhage, Svenja Beckmann, Thomas Quack, Christoph G. Grevelding, Anthony B. Pinkerton, Bruno Schönecker, Jeremy Burrows, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet, Stefan Rahlfs and Katja Becker et al.
Steroid units can facilitate membrane permeation and bioavailability in drugs. Here, using a medicinal chemistry program, Krieg et al. identify an arylmethylamino steroid that kills Plasmodium parasites, likely through a chelate-based quinone methide mechanism, and has activity against Schistosoma mansoni.
Hidden hearing loss (HHL) is an auditory neuropathy that impairs one’s ability to hear, particularly in a noisy environment. Here the authors show that in mice, transient loss of cochlear Schwann cells results in permanent disruption of the cochlear heminodal structure, leading to auditory deficits characteristic of HHL.
Prasanna V. Balachandran, Joshua Young, Turab Lookman and James M. Rondinelli
Computational design of functional materials with broken inversion symmetry is a complex task. Here, the authors demonstrate an approach that integrates symmetry analysis, data science methods, and density functional theory to accelerate the selection and identification process in complex oxides.
Sambeeta Das, Oleg E. Shklyaev, Alicia Altemose, Henry Shum, Isamar Ortiz-Rivera, Lyanne Valdez, Thomas E. Mallouk, Anna C. Balazs and Ayusman Sen
Targeted delivery of microparticles is desirable for rapid, sensitive biological assays or self-assembly process. Here Das et al. use catalytic reactions on the surface of microfluidic chambers to generate unidirectional flows that carry and deposit microparticles to selective regions of the chamber.
Benjamin J. Carey, Jian Zhen Ou, Rhiannon M. Clark, Kyle J. Berean, Ali Zavabeti, Anthony S. R. Chesman, Salvy P. Russo, Desmond W. M. Lau, Zai-Quan Xu, Qiaoliang Bao, Omid Kevehei, Brant C. Gibson, Michael D. Dickey, Richard B. Kaner, Torben Daeneke and Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
One of the key challenges 2D materials still face is their uniform wafer-scale deposition. Here, the authors present a deposition method for post-transition metal dichalcogenides, based on transformation of an ultra-thin oxide layer on the surface of liquid elemental gallium onto an oxide-coated substrate.
M. J. Zhu, A. V. Kretinin, M. D. Thompson, D. A. Bandurin, S. Hu, G. L. Yu, J. Birkbeck, A. Mishchenko, I. J. Vera-Marun, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Polini, J. R. Prance, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim and M. Ben Shalom
The absence of a bandgap in the electronic spectrum of graphene can be overcome by breaking its lattice symmetry. The authors show that the insulating state of gapped graphene is electrically shorted by narrow edge channels exhibiting high conductivity.
Benjamin G. M. Webber, Karen J. Heywood, David P. Stevens, Pierre Dutrieux, E. Povl Abrahamsen, Adrian Jenkins, Stanley S. Jacobs, Ho Kyung Ha, Sang Hoon Lee and Tae Wan Kim
Pine Island Glacier terminates in a rapidly melting ice shelf and ocean conditions are believed to influence its contribution to sea level rise. Here, the authors show that variability in these ocean conditions is driven by a combination of changes in ocean circulation and local surface heat fluxes.
Yun Teng, Yi Ren, Xin Hu, Jingyao Mu, Abhilash Samykutty, Xiaoying Zhuang, Zhongbin Deng, Anil Kumar, Lifeng Zhang, Michael L. Merchant, Jun Yan, Donald M. Miller and Huang-Ge Zhang
Exosomes are involved in the development of metastasis but how their composition is regulated is not well known. Here the authors propose that major vault protein-dependent loading of miR-193a into exosomes could be a general mechanism by which cancer cells get rid of oncosuppressor miRNAs.
Alternative energy is widely believed to proportionally displace fossil fuels. Here, the authors analyse displacement values for China between 1995 and 2014 and show that alternative energy, primarily hydropower, displaced ∼1/4 of a unit of fossil electricity, twice the global average.
David L. Mack, Emiliano Cortés, Vincenzo Giannini, Peter Török, Tyler Roschuk and Stefan A. Maier
Reporting the position of molecules and the electromagnetic enhancement in a plasmonic hotspot is difficult. Here Mack et al. use a large Stokes-shifted molecule to spectrally decouple the emission process of the dye from the plasmonic system, keeping the absorption on resonance with the plasmon resonance of the antenna.
Esther Rajendran, Sanduni V. Hapuarachchi, Catherine M. Miller, Stephen J. Fairweather, Yeping Cai, Nicholas C. Smith, Ian A. Cockburn, Stefan Bröer, Kiaran Kirk and Giel G. van Dooren
Apicomplexans are parasites that use membrane transporters to scavenge essential nutrients from the host. Here the authors identify and characterize two apicomplexans transporters showing that these are crucial for cationic amino acid uptake, parasite survival and virulence.
Xuerui Wang, Chenglong Chi, Kang Zhang, Yuhong Qian, Krishna M. Gupta, Zixi Kang, Jianwen Jiang and Dan Zhao
Reducing membrane thickness to nanometre scale should increase the throughput of gas separation sieves. Here, the authors report a sieving membrane composed of two-dimensional metal-organic framework nanosheets, exhibiting both high permeation flux and thermally switchable behaviour.
Zenggang Li, Andrei A. Ivanov, Rina Su, Valentina Gonzalez-Pecchi, Qi Qi, Songlin Liu, Philip Webber, Elizabeth McMillan, Lauren Rusnak, Cau Pham, Xiaoqian Chen, Xiulei Mo, Brian Revennaugh, Wei Zhou, Adam Marcus, Sahar Harati, Xiang Chen, Margaret A. Johns, Michael A. White, Carlos Moreno et al.
Understanding of dysregulation in cancers requires knowledge, beyond cancer genomes, of the interactions of cancer-associated proteins. Here, the authors use high-throughput, time-resolved FRET to map protein–protein interactions to establish a lung cancer protein network, and demonstrate its utility in revealing new oncogenic pathways and connectivity of tumour suppressors with druggable targets.
Andreas Sprengel, Pascal Lill, Pierre Stegemann, Kenny Bravo-Rodriguez, Elisa-C. Schöneweiß, Melisa Merdanovic, Daniel Gudnason, Mikayel Aznauryan, Lisa Gamrad, Stephan Barcikowski, Elsa Sanchez-Garcia, Victoria Birkedal, Christos Gatsogiannis, Michael Ehrmann and Barbara Saccà
Current strategies for protein encapsulation in DNA vessels for controlled enzymatic catalysis or therapeutic delivery rely on formation of covalent complexes. Here, the authors design a system that mimics natural reversible non-covalent host–guest interactions between a DNA host and the protein DegP.
M. Montalti, G. Zhang, D. Genovese, J. Morales, M. Kellermeier and J. M. García-Ruiz
Silica biomorphs have similar structural features found in natural biominerals, but consist of inorganic components that self-assemble spontaneously. Here the authors show that pH oscillates in the local environment during the growth of self-organized silica-carbonates nanostructures.
Joonseok Cho, Yujian Zhang, Shi-Young Park, Anna-Maria Joseph, Chul Han, Hyo-Jin Park, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Sung-Kook Chun, Drake Morgan, Jae-Sung Kim, Shinichi Someya, Clayton E. Mathews, Young Jae Lee, Stephanie E. Wohlgemuth, Nishanth E. Sunny, Hui-Young Lee, Cheol Soo Choi, Takayuki Shiratsuchi, S. Paul Oh and Naohiro Terada et al.
Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) 2 promotes ADP/ATP exchange across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Cho et al. show that liver specific Ant2 deletion increases uncoupled respiration and protects mice against fatty liver and obesity-induced insulin resistance.
Qiyu Feng, Chengliang Zhang, David Lum, Joseph E. Druso, Bryant Blank, Kristin F. Wilson, Alana Welm, Marc A. Antonyak and Richard A. Cerione
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain VEGF and can contribute to tumour angiogenesis, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here, the authors find that a form of VEGF (VEGF90K) resistant to Bevacizumab but sensitive to HSP90 inhibitors, associates with EVs through its interaction with Hsp90.
Aurélie Bak, Andrea L. Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A. Whitham and Clare L. Casteel
Turnip mosaic virus infection increases the performance of aphid vectors on host plants. Here the authors show that this phenomenon requires relocalization of a viral protease to host cell vacuoles and that this only occurs when aphids are present, suggesting a viral protein responds dynamically to a vector.
Teng Ma, Zhibo Liu, Jinxiu Wen, Yang Gao, Xibiao Ren, Huanjun Chen, Chuanhong Jin, Xiu-Liang Ma, Ningsheng Xu, Hui-Ming Cheng and Wencai Ren
Understanding the effect of grain boundaries on the electrical and thermal transport properties of graphene is of both fundamental and technological importance. Here, the authors fabricate graphene films with controlled grain size, and determine the scaling laws of thermal and electrical conductivities.
Sachin Hajarnis, Ronak Lakhia, Matanel Yheskel, Darren Williams, Mehran Sorourian, Xueqing Liu, Karam Aboudehen, Shanrong Zhang, Kara Kersjes, Ryan Galasso, Jian Li, Vivek Kaimal, Steven Lockton, Scott Davis, Andrea Flaten, Joshua A. Johnson, William L. Holland, Christine M. Kusminski, Philipp E. Scherer, Peter C. Harris et al.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a life-threatening genetic disease that leads to renal failure. Here Hajarnis et al. show that miR-17 modulates cyst progression in ADPKD through metabolic reprogramming of mitochondria and its inhibition slows cyst development and improves renal functions.
Hyeran Kim, Sang-Tae Kim, Jahee Ryu, Beum-Chang Kang, Jin-Soo Kim and Sang-Gyu Kim
Cpf1 is a type V CRISPR effector protein that has different target and guide RNA requirements compared to Cas9, thus offering an addition tool for precision genome editing. Here Kim et al. show that Cpf1 ribonucleoprotein can be introduced into protoplasts and used for transgene-free gene editing in plants.
Y. F. Lu, H. Kono, T. I. Larkin, A. W. Rost, T. Takayama, A. V. Boris, B. Keimer and H. Takagi
The nature of an insulating phase in Ta2NiSe5 is an open question. Here, Lu et al. report transport, thermodynamic and optical evidences being fully consistent with an excitonic insulator phase in this material.
Sachio Horiuchi, Kensuke Kobayashi, Reiji Kumai and Shoji Ishibashi
Ferroelectrics based on proton tautomerism are promising in low-field and above-roomtemperature operations. Here the authors establish a procedure to optimize spontaneous polarizations, finding that the polarization in croconic acid breaks its own record for organic systems.
Altin Sula, Jennifer Booker, Leo C. T. Ng, Claire E. Naylor, Paul G. DeCaen and B. A. Wallace
Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels are crucial for action potential initiation in excitable cells. Here the authors present the complete structure of prokaryotic NavMs in a fully open state, providing structural insight into the opening and closure of the channel's intracellular gate.
F. Qin, W. Shi, T. Ideue, M. Yoshida, A. Zak, R. Tenne, T. Kikitsu, D. Inoue, D. Hashizume and Y. Iwasa
Chirality affects many properties of materials, but how it affects superconductivity remains unclear. Here, Qin et al. report nonreciprocal supercurrent flows in individual nanotubes of WS2 via ionic gating, evidencing chiral superconducting transport.
Shawn T. Beug, Caroline E. Beauregard, Cristin Healy, Tarun Sanda, Martine St-Jean, Janelle Chabot, Danielle E. Walker, Aditya Mohan, Nathalie Earl, Xueqing Lun, Donna L. Senger, Stephen M. Robbins, Peter Staeheli, Peter A. Forsyth, Tommy Alain, Eric C. LaCasse and Robert G. Korneluk
Smac mimetics sensitize cancer cells to the extrinsic cell death pathway and stimulate anti-tumour immunity. In this study, the authors show that Smac mimetics can synergize with immune checkpoint inhibitors to control tumour growth in mouse cancer models, including aggressive CNS tumours, in a cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell- and TNFα-dependent manner.
Robin Blume-Kohout, John King Gamble, Erik Nielsen, Kenneth Rudinger, Jonathan Mizrahi, Kevin Fortier and Peter Maunz
Quantum computation will depend on fault-tolerant error correction, which requires the chance for errors to occur to be below a certain threshold. Here the authors use gate set tomography as a means to rigorously characterize error rates of single-qubit operations of a qubit encoded in a trapped ion.
Yana Izdebskaya, Vladlen Shvedov, Gaetano Assanto and Wieslaw Krolikowski
Nematic liquid crystals are frequently used as a reconfigurable material to control light propagation and as a nonlinear medium supporting solitons. Here, the authors demonstrate steering of such solitons in bulk nematic liquid crystals without lateral anchoring by external magnetic fields.
L. Marleny Rodríguez-Albelo, Elena López-Maya, Said Hamad, A. Rabdel Ruiz-Salvador, Sofia Calero and Jorge A.R. Navarro
The widespread emission of sulfur oxide gases from fossil fuel combustion presents major health risks. Here, the authors show that the selective sulfur dioxide capture performance of a metal organic framework is improved by the introduction of missing linker defects and extra-framework barium cations.
Konstantin Kloppstech, Nils Könne, Svend-Age Biehs, Alejandro W. Rodriguez, Ludwig Worbes, David Hellmann and Achim Kittel
Kloppstech et al. report experimental observations of the heat transfer between a gold tip and an atomically flat gold sample in the 0.2–7 nm regime. The observed flux rates are four orders of magnitude larger than expected from theory, suggesting the possibility of additional heat transfer mechanisms.
Han-Chun Wu, Alexander N. Chaika, Ming-Chien Hsu, Tsung-Wei Huang, Mourad Abid, Mohamed Abid, Victor Yu Aristov, Olga V. Molodtsova, Sergey V. Babenkov, Yuran Niu, Barry E. Murphy, Sergey A. Krasnikov, Olaf Lübben, Huajun Liu, Byong Sun Chun, Yahya T. Janabi, Sergei N. Molotkov, Igor V. Shvets, Alexander I. Lichtenstein, Mikhail I. Katsnelson et al.
Owing to long spin lifetime and diffusion length, graphene holds promise for spintronics, yet it does not possess intrinsic magnetic properties. Here, the authors observe experimentally a large, positive magnetoresistance at graphene nanodomain boundaries.
Caroline Kumsta, Jessica T. Chang, Jessica Schmalz and Malene Hansen
Mild heat stress has beneficial effects on organismal health and survival. Here, Kumsta et al. show that a mild heat shock and HSF-1 overexpression induce autophagy in multiple tissues of C. elegans and autophagy-related genes are essential for both heat shock-induced and HSF-1–mediated stress resistance and longevity.
Hanno Seebens, Tim M. Blackburn, Ellie E. Dyer, Piero Genovesi, Philip E. Hulme, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Shyama Pagad, Petr Pyšek, Marten Winter, Margarita Arianoutsou, Sven Bacher, Bernd Blasius, Giuseppe Brundu, César Capinha, Laura Celesti-Grapow, Wayne Dawson, Stefan Dullinger, Nicol Fuentes, Heinke Jäger, John Kartesz et al.
Alien species of animals and plants can invade new regions of the earth. This study performs a global analysis of temporal dynamics and spatial patterns of alien species introductions over the past 200 years, and reports no saturation in the rate at which these invasion are increasing.
Joe Ryan Delaney, Chandni B. Patel, Katelyn McCabe Willis, Mina Haghighiabyaneh, Joshua Axelrod, Isabelle Tancioni, Dan Lu, Jaidev Bapat, Shanique Young, Octavia Cadassou, Alena Bartakova, Parthiv Sheth, Carley Haft, Sandra Hui, Cheryl Saenz, David D. Schlaepfer, Olivier Harismendy and Dwayne G. Stupack
Cancers accumulate multiple single copy number alterations, but their impact is unclear. Here, the authors computationally demonstrate a disruption of genes associated with autophagy in ovarian cancer, show impact on autophagic flux, and note the efficacy of autophagy drugs in preclinical models.
Iban Amenabar, Simon Poly, Monika Goikoetxea, Wiwat Nuansing, Peter Lasch and Rainer Hillenbrand
In hyperspectral imaging a broadband spectrum is recorded at each pixel, which creates information-rich images. Here, the authors combine this concept with Fourier transform infrared nanospectroscopy to achieve 5,000-pixel, nanoscale-resolution images at wavelengths between 5 and 10 micrometres.
Harish Potu, Luke F. Peterson, Malathi Kandarpa, Anupama Pal, Hanshi Sun, Alison Durham, Paul W. Harms, Peter C. Hollenhorst, Ugur Eskiocak, Moshe Talpaz and Nicholas J. Donato
Usp9x is a deubiquitinating enzyme with altered expression in melanoma; however its functional contribution in this context is not clear. Here the authors show that Usp9x regulates the stability of the transcription factor Ets-1 that in turn impacts metastatic melanoma through increased expression of NRAS.
Yadi Wu, Yu Wang, Yiwei Lin, Yajuan Liu, Yifan Wang, Jianhang Jia, Puja Singh, Young-In Chi, Chi Wang, Chenfang Dong, Wei Li, Min Tao, Dana Napier, Qiuying Shi, Jiong Deng, B Mark Evers and Binhua P. Zhou
Snail1 is a key factor controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer metastasis. While the E3 ligases responsible for Snail1 ubiquitination and degradation have been defined, the deubiquitinating enzyme is unknown. Here Zhou and colleagues show that Dub3 stabilizes Snail1 by removing ubiquitin, thus impacting breast cancer cell metastasis.
Longji Cui, Wonho Jeong, Víctor Fernández-Hurtado, Johannes Feist, Francisco J. García-Vidal, Juan Carlos Cuevas, Edgar Meyhofer and Pramod Reddy
Here, Cui et al. report radiative heat transfer in few Ångström to 5 nm gap sizes, between a gold-coated probe and a heated planar gold substrate subjected to various surface cleaning procedures. They found that insufficiently cleaned probes and substrates led to unexpectedly large radiative thermal conductances.
Giovanni Sgubin, Didier Swingedouw, Sybren Drijfhout, Yannick Mary and Amine Bennabi
Concerns on climate change include the risk of abrupt cooling in the North Atlantic. Here, the authors analyse CMIP5 projections and show that a convection collapse in the subpolar gyre can cool this region by up to 3°C in 10 years, which is as likely to occur by 2100 as a continuous warming.
Zhengbang Wang, Alfred Błaszczyk, Olaf Fuhr, Stefan Heissler, Christof Wöll and Marcel Mayor
The self-assembly of polymer threads into interwoven textiles is an important goal in polymer chemistry. Here the authors assemble interwoven polymer chains by cross-linking acetylene functionalized ligands in surface-mounted MOFs and subsequent removal of the metal ions affords 2D textile sheets.
Francisco Perez-Balderas, Sander I. van Kasteren, Alaa A. A. Aljabali, Kim Wals, Sébastien Serres, Andrew Jefferson, Manuel Sarmiento Soto, Alexandre A. Khrapitchev, James R Larkin, Claire Bristow, Seung Seo Lee, Guillaume Bort, Filippo De Simone, Sandra J. Campbell, Robin P. Choudhury, Daniel C. Anthony, Nicola R. Sibson and Benjamin G. Davis
Iron oxide microparticles (MPIO) are better MRI contrast agents than nanoparticles, but are of limited clinical use as they are not degradable and so risk toxicity. Here the authors present an iron oxide microparticle MRI contrast agent with peptide linkers that enable degradation into non-toxic nanoparticles in vivo.
Andy Hodson, Aga Nowak, Marie Sabacka, Anne Jungblut, Francisco Navarro, David Pearce, María Luisa Ávila-Jiménez, Peter Convey and Gonçalo Vieira
Glacially-derived iron fertilizes the Southern Ocean ecosystem, but the quantities transported by runoff from Antarctica are unknown. Here, the authors show significant fluxes associated with surface meltwater runoff, and demonstrate that a marked increase in export can be expected in response to climate warming.
Guan Du, Jifeng Shao, Xiong Yang, Zengyi Du, Delong Fang, Jinghui Wang, Kejing Ran, Jinsheng Wen, Changjin Zhang, Huan Yang, Yuheng Zhang and Hai-Hu Wen
Whether and how the Dirac electrons can be driven into superconducting state remains unclear. Here, Du et al. present systematic study to demonstrate the Dirac electrons condensing into Cooper pairs on the surface of a possible topological superconductor SrxBi2Se3.
Juan R. Hernandez-Fernaud, Elena Ruengeler, Andrea Casazza, Lisa J. Neilson, Ellie Pulleine, Alice Santi, Shehab Ismail, Sergio Lilla, Sandeep Dhayade, Iain R. MacPherson, Iain McNeish, Darren Ennis, Hala Ali, Fernanda G. Kugeratski, Heba Al Khamici, Maartje van den Biggelaar, Peter V.E. van den Berghe, Catherine Cloix, Laura McDonald, David Millan et al.
The secretome from cancer and stromal cells contributes to the creation of a microenvironment, which in turn contributes to invasion and angiogenesis. Here, the authors compare the secretomes of immortalized normal fibroblasts and cancer-derived fibroblast and identify CLIC3 as a driver of cancer progression.
Solene M. Evrard, Laura Lecce, Katherine C. Michelis, Aya Nomura-Kitabayashi, Gaurav Pandey, K-Raman Purushothaman, Valentina d’Escamard, Jennifer R. Li, Lahouaria Hadri, Kenji Fujitani, Pedro R. Moreno, Ludovic Benard, Pauline Rimmele, Ariella Cohain, Brigham Mecham, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Elizabeth G. Nabel, Roger Hajjar, Valentin Fuster, Manfred Boehm et al.
Laura L. Arthur, Joyce J. Chung, Preetam Janakirama, Kathryn M. Keefer, Igor Kolotilin, Slavica Pavlovic-Djuranovic, Douglas L. Chalker, Vojislava Grbic, Rachel Green, Rima Menassa, Heather L. True, James B. Skeath and Sergej Djuranovic
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