Thursday, January 26, 2017

Science X Newsletter Thursday, Jan 26

Dear Reader ,

Find inspiration for new design ideas from over 500 papers, posters, and presentations on multiphysics simulation available in this new collection. Get instant access here:

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for January 26, 2017:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Astronomers measure universe expansion, get hints of 'new physics' (Update)

Isotopic similarities seen in materials that formed Earth, moon

Metallic hydrogen, once theory, becomes reality

For this metal, electricity flows, but not the heat

Physicists unveil new form of matter—time crystals

Scientists discover critical anti-viral role of biological molecule

Playing with little robots that act smart around obstacle courses

Study suggests practicing acts of self-control can make you better at it

Similar-looking ridges on Mars have diverse origins

Two leukemia babies in remission after injection of new kind of edited T-cells

Advanced materials power next-generation molecular separations

Electron holography of individual proteins

Which brain networks respond when someone sticks to a belief?

Memory limits give rise to open-ended language abilities

Mobile torrefaction technology that can convert biomass into clean-burning fuel

Astronomy & Space news

Astronomers measure universe expansion, get hints of 'new physics' (Update)

Astronomers have just made a new measurement of the Hubble Constant, the rate at which the universe is expanding, and it doesn't quite line up with a different estimate of the same number. That discrepancy could hint at "new physics" beyond the standard model of cosmology, according to the team, which includes physicists from the University of California, Davis, that made the observation.

Isotopic similarities seen in materials that formed Earth, moon

Where did the materials that make up the Earth and moon come from—and when did they arrive?

Similar-looking ridges on Mars have diverse origins

Thin, blade-like walls, some as tall as a 16-story building, dominate a previously undocumented network of intersecting ridges on Mars, found in images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Rapid gas flares discovered in white dwarf star for the first time

Incredibly rapid gas flares from a white dwarf binary star system have been detected for the first time by Oxford University scientists. The first sighting of such activity, it suggests that our current understanding of star habits and their capabilities is incomplete.

New space weather model helps simulate magnetic structure of solar storms

The dynamic space environment that surrounds Earth - the space our astronauts and spacecraft travel through - can be rattled by huge solar eruptions from the sun, which spew giant clouds of magnetic energy and plasma, a hot gas of electrically charged particles, out into space. The magnetic field of these solar eruptions are difficult to predict and can interact with Earth's magnetic fields, causing space weather effects.

Researchers seek to deflect asteroids, preventing their collision with Earth

An international project, led by Spain's National Research Council, (CSIC) provides information on the effects a projectile impact would have on an asteroid. The aim of the project is to work out how an asteroid might be deflected so as not to collide with the Earth. The research, published in The Astrophysical Journal, focuses on the study of the asteroid Chelyabinsk, which exploded over Russian skies in 2013 after passing through the atmosphere.

Image: Visualization of proposed temple atop Shackleton Crater

A near-perpetually sunlit peak close to the Moon's south pole has been selected by ESA's artist-in-residence as the site of a building like no other.

Image: Juno's close look at the Little Red Spot

The JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft snapped this shot of Jupiter's northern latitudes on Dec. 11, 2016 at 8:47 a.m. PST (11:47 a.m. EST), as the spacecraft performed a close flyby of the gas giant planet. The spacecraft was at an altitude of 10,300 miles (16,600 kilometers) above Jupiter's cloud tops. 

Hundreds honor 3 astronauts lost in Apollo fire 50 years ago

Moonwalkers and dozens of others who took part in NASA's storied Apollo program paid tribute Thursday to the three astronauts killed in a fire 50 years ago.

Technology news

Playing with little robots that act smart around obstacle courses

(Tech Xplore)—A lot has been said about home robots giving assistance and companionship to children, the homebound and the elderly. Machines designed with expressive eyes and head gestures are of special interest and admiration. But what if we went back to creature type robots and giving them artificial intelligence such that they can be the robots we want to spend time with too?

Model driverless car regulations after drug approval process, AI ethics experts argue

Autonomous systems—like driverless cars —perform tasks that previously could only be performed by humans. In a new IEEE Intelligent Systems Expert Opinion piece, Carnegie Mellon University artificial intelligence ethics experts David Danks and Alex John London argue that current safety regulations do not plan for these systems and are therefore ill-equipped to ensure that autonomous systems will perform safely and reliably.

SK Hynix reports Q4 profit jump on rising chip prices

South Korean chipmaker SK Hynix saw Q4 profits leap nearly 90 percent, it said Thursday, fuelled by a pickup in global demand from smartphone manufacturers coupled with rising chip prices.

Facebook gets ex-Xiaomi executive Barra as new VR head

Social media giant Facebook announced late Wednesday it had recruited Hugo Barra, who recently quit a top position with Chinese smartphone maker Xiaomi, as its new head of virtual reality.

Development of a hydraulic-driven, high-power artificial muscle

An artificial muscle using rubber tubing is extremely powerful but lightweight, with strong resistance to impact and vibration, allowing for the most compact and energy efficient tough robots ever created. Researchers expect that this will lead to the smallest, lightest, and most powerful consumer robots ever created in the near future.

Saudi vulnerable to 'Shamoon 2' virus: telco chief

Saudi computer security systems are vulnerable to the "Shamoon 2" virus, a senior communications official warned Thursday, confirming reports of a fresh cyberattack on the kingdom.

Reptilian robots are spies in the wild

EPFL scientists designed, built and remote-controlled the robotic structures of a crocodile and a lizard for a field experiment, in the depths of Africa, in collaboration with the BBC. The robots are featured in today's episode of "Spy in the Wild".

Video: MIT Hyperloop

A team of MIT student designers is heading to California with a concept pod, a vision for the future of transportation, and a singular intention: to win the SpaceX Hyperloop Pod Competition.

Mexico's energy reform can benefit from Latin America's petroleum sector development

The decision makers behind Mexico's budding energy reform can learn from the history of the development of the petroleum sector in Latin America, according to a new paper by an expert in the Mexico Center and the Center for Energy Studies at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

Getting virtual infrastructure models out of the computer and into the workspace

Engineers will soon be able to visualize Building Information Models (BIMs) in full scale at their offices or superimposed on the real structure at construction sites, thanks to technology developed by the Department of Engineering's Construction IT laboratory in collaboration with Trimble and Microsoft.

Far beyond crime-ridden depravity, darknets are key strongholds of freedom of expression online

The internet is much more than just the publicly available, Google-able web services most online users frequent – and that's good for free expression. Companies frequently create private networks to enable employees to use secure corporate servers, for example. And free software allows individuals to create what are called "peer-to-peer" networks, connecting directly from one machine to another.

Want to track cellphones? Get a warrant, lawmakers say

Law enforcement cellphone tracking devices are coming under scrutiny in several states, where lawmakers have introduced proposals ranging from warrant requirements to an outright ban on the technology.

Ikea buys Canada wind farm to offset carbon footprint

Ikea on Thursday announced plans to buy a wind farm with 55 turbines in the oil-rich Canadian province of Alberta to offset its local stores' electricity use and reduce their carbon footprint.

Driverless bus makes debut in Georgia at start of US tour

A shuttle bus that drove itself—along with human passengers—through a course in a parking lot near Atlanta is embarking on a tour that will include stops in Texas and California.

Twitter adds 'explore' to make finding tweets easier

Twitter on Thursday added an "explore" tab aimed at making it easier to find interesting content, the latest move to boost engagement at the one-to-many messaging service.

Google parent Alphabet profit edges up, revenue surges

Google parent Alphabet on Thursday reported that its profit in the final three months of last year climbed on growth in mobile search and video-sharing service YouTube.

Google's Pixel phone shines despite misgauging demand

The Pixel phone, Google's answer to Apple's iPhone and Samsung's Galaxy, is off to a promising start—but might have done even better had Google managed consumer demand as smartly as the device's sleek design.

Cloud boosts Microsoft as it absorbs LinkedIn

Microsoft on Thursday reported a rise in profits over the past quarter, showing gains in cloud computing and other new areas of focus as it absorbed the LinkedIn social network.

Americans distrustful after hacking epidemic: survey

Nearly two-thirds of Americans have experienced some kind of data theft or fraud, leaving many mistrustful of institutions charged with safeguarding their information, a poll showed Wednesday.

The power of wind energy and how to use it

Wind offers an immense, never-ending source of energy that can be successfully harnessed to power all of the things that currently draw energy from nonrenewable resources. But wind frequency varies with weather patterns.

Your cable company wants to be your phone company, too

Your TV provider may soon become your phone company. Which seems only fair, because your phone company also wants to be your TV provider.

Fiat Chrysler head: diesel talks in US are 'proceeding well'

Fiat Chrysler's CEO says discussions are "proceeding well" with U.S. environmental authorities to get 2017 diesel models certified so they can be sold.

Coming next in domotics—houses that decipher voice commands

In the race for a smart everything, houses seem to be gathering more attention every year. Voice control is one of the features that high-tech companies are willing to invest in and - while technological solutions are still in their early stages - an EU-funded project is looking to blow their mind by going a step further: voice control spiced up with automated speech recognition.

New study suggests guidelines for takeover time in automated vehicles

Many recent human factors studies of takeover time in automated vehicles have looked at how long it takes a driver to switch out of automation mode, usually in critical situations. Alexander Eriksson and Neville Stanton at the University of Southampton, focusing on automation takeover time in noncritical situations, took what is likely the first in-depth look at how long it takes drivers to transition from manual to automated driving.

Temasek fund invests $800 mn in Alphabet subsidiary

Singapore-based sovereign fund Temasek will invest $800 million in Verily, the Alphabet subsidiary focused on healthcare announced on Thursday.

Medicine & Health news

Scientists discover critical anti-viral role of biological molecule

Scientists have discovered that a biological molecule important in cell growth (STAT3) is also critical in protecting us against infection - so much so that we would be unable to fight the common flu virus without it. Their discovery could pave the way to the development of new therapeutics charged with restoring our natural immunity to a whole spectrum of viruses that have evolved 'roadblocks' to the immune response.

Study suggests practicing acts of self-control can make you better at it

(Medical Xpress)—A trio of researchers from China and the U.S. has conducted a study that offers possible evidence of a way to improve self-control—by consistently engaging in self-control acts. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Jianxin Wang, Yulei Rao and Daniel Houser describe experiments they carried out with volunteers meant to test the idea that people could improve their willpower regarding one activity by periodically engaging in another.

Two leukemia babies in remission after injection of new kind of edited T-cells

(Medical Xpress)—Two babies given an experimental kind of edited T-cells to treat their leukemia remain in remission after more than a year, doctors working on the case report in a paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. The research team is affiliated with several institutions in the U.K.

Which brain networks respond when someone sticks to a belief?

A study led by USC Dornsife scientists confirms what seems increasingly true in American politics: People are hardheaded about their political beliefs, even when provided with contradictory evidence.

Memory limits give rise to open-ended language abilities

A hallmark of human language is our ability to produce and understand an infinite number of different sentences. This unique open-ended productivity is normally explained in terms of "structural reuse"; sentences are constructed from reusable parts such as phrases. But how languages come to be composed of reusable parts in the first place is a question that has long puzzled researchers in the language sciences.

Tiny exports signal big shifts in cancer tissue, researchers find

Microscopic shifts in metabolism and increases in tiny transport vesicles out of tumor cells preface larger changes to the tumor environment and could prepare the way for cancerous cells to spread and metastasize, University of Illinois researchers report. They saw cancer-causing biological events at both the molecular and tissue scales as they happened, imaging the cells with precise wavelengths of light—no chemicals, dyes or genetic manipulation needed.

Gene key for chemically reprogramming human stem cells

Scientists have discovered the gene essential for chemically reprogramming human amniotic stem cells into a more versatile state similar to embryonic stem cells, in research led by UCL and Heinrich Heine University.

Feed a cold, starve a fever? Not so fast, according to research

The last time you had a stomach bug, you probably didn't feel much like eating. This loss of appetite is part of your body's normal response to an illness but is not well understood. Sometimes eating less during illness promotes a faster recovery, but other times—such as when cancer patients experience wasting—the loss of appetite can be deadly.

Trying to tango with more than two: Extra centrosomes promote tumor formation in mice

When a cell is dividing, two identical structures, called centrosomes, move to opposite sides of the cell to help separate its chromosomes into the new cells. More than 100 years ago, scientists observed that cancer cells often have more than two centrosomes, but they couldn't untangle whether the extra structures were a result of the cancer—or part of its cause. Now, biologists at Johns Hopkins have solved that conundrum, finding that extra centrosomes can single-handedly promote tumor formation in mice.

New gene-delivery therapy restores partial hearing, balance in deaf mice

Using a novel form of gene therapy, scientists from Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital have managed to restore partial hearing and balance in mice born with a genetic condition that affects both.

Leprosy strain genotyped from medieval pilgrim at UK burial site

Leprosy is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis. It has afflicted humans for thousands of years, reaching epidemic levels during the Middle Ages, and people continue to be affected by the disease today. However, the genetic origins of the disease are not well understood.

Model assessment may predict obstructive sleep apnea in children with Down syndrome

A combination of parental questionnaires and inexpensive diagnostic procedures that can be performed as part of a primary care visit may be able to rule out the presence of obstructive sleep apnea in people with Down syndrome. If validated in a future study currently in progress, this assessment - developed by a team led by a MassGeneral Hospital for Children (MGHfC) physician - may be able to greatly reduce the need for sleep studies, which can be expensive and inconvenient for patients and their families.

Autism researchers discover genetic 'Rosetta Stone'

Distinct sets of genetic defects in a single neuronal protein can lead either to infantile epilepsy or to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), depending on whether the respective mutations boost the protein's function or sabotage it, according to a new study by UC San Francisco researchers. Tracing how these particular genetic defects lead to more general changes in brain function could unlock fundamental mysteries about how events early in brain development lead to autism, the authors say.

Study finds telephone wellness coaching helps members lose weight

Kaiser Permanente members who voluntarily participated in individual wellness coaching by telephone for weight management lost an average of 10 pounds each and changed their weight trajectories from upward to downward, according to a new study published in the journal Obesity.

Fat shaming linked to greater health risks

Body shaming is a pervasive form of prejudice, found in cyber bullying, critiques of celebrities' appearances, at work and school, and in public places for everyday Americans. People who are battling obesity face being stereotyped as lazy, incompetent, unattractive, lacking willpower, and to blame for their excess weight. The pain of these messages may take a toll on health and increase risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, according to a new study published in Obesity, the journal of The Obesity Society, led by a research team from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

High variability among experts when assessing claimants for work disability benefits

Healthcare professionals have high variation in judgement when assessing the same claimant for disability benefits, finds a review published by The BMJ today.

Should hypothyroidism in pregnancy be treated?

When a woman becomes pregnant, many changes occur in her body. One of those changes is in the levels of various hormones produced by the body.

Study finds premature death rates diverge in the United States by race and ethnicity

Premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs)—in line with trends in Canada and the United Kingdom—but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), according to a comprehensive study of premature death rates for the entire U.S. population from 1999 to 2014. This divergence was reported by researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and colleagues at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), both part of the National Institutes of Health, and the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. The findings appeared January 25, 2017, in The Lancet.

Death clocks should come with a health warning, says top economist

The good news is that we are all living longer. The bad news is that we will all die ... but when?

Does depression boost the risk of cancer death?

People who are frequently depressed or anxious may run a higher risk of dying from certain types of cancer, researchers said on Thursday.

Fighting leprosy when the world thinks it's eradicated

Farmer Folahan is one of up to 200 people in the west African country of Benin who still contract leprosy every year.

Brexit uncertainty hangs over EU medicines agency

Tasked with giving new medicines the go-ahead across the EU, the European Medicines Agency is likely to have to relocate from its London base after Brexit—a prospect that is worrying its chief Guido Rasi.

Uncertainty surrounding junior doctors' contract affected career choice, study reveals

Fewer doctors are choosing to train in acute hospital specialties as a result of turbulence surrounding last year's junior doctors' contract, according to an academic survey.

Split brain does not lead to split consciousness

A new research study contradicts the established view that so-called split-brain patients have a split consciousness. Instead, the researchers behind the study, led by UvA psychologist Yair Pinto, have found strong evidence showing that despite being characterised by little to no communication between the right and left brain hemispheres, split brain does not cause two independent conscious perceivers in one brain. Their results are published in the latest edition of the journal Brain.

African trees kill both malaria mosquitoes and the parasite

Malaria is one of the world's most serious infectious diseases and affects more than 200 million people each year. Scientists at the University of Oslo have examined the bark from two African trees and found substances that can kill both the mosquitoes that transmit malaria, and the parasite itself.

Surgical eye robot performs precision injection in patient with retinal vein occlusion

Eye surgeons at University Hospitals Leuven have been the first to use a surgical robot to operate on a patient with retinal vein occlusion. The robot uses a needle of barely 0.03 millimetre to inject a thrombolytic drug into the patient's retinal vein. KU Leuven developed the robot and needle specifically for this procedure.

Growth-stunting gene may spare South Americans from dementia

Ecuadorians who have a rare, growth-stunting gene do not appear to experience memory loss to the same degree as other people, according to a new study.

Predicting outcomes for patients with kidney injury

When patients experience acute kidney injury (AKI)—sudden kidney failure or damage—in the hospital, they are at increased risk of death and other adverse events. Theoretically, if clinicians could predict which patients were at risk of these outcomes, they could mobilize resources, such as diagnostic evaluation and increased monitoring, to those individuals, counsel them and their families, and improve care.

Children get more satisfaction from relationships with their pets than with siblings

Children get more satisfaction from relationships with their pets than with their brothers or sisters, according to new research from the University of Cambridge. Children also appear to get on even better with their animal companions than with siblings.

U.S. cancer death rate declines, but work is needed to address local disparities

While a new study has shown a marked decline in the cancer mortality rates across the United States, University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have called for tailored, local-level cancer prevention, screening and treatment efforts to address regional disparities in cancer mortality rates.

Researchers unlock mechanism of drug resistance in aggressive breast cancer

Breast cancer cells are evasive, finding ways to bypass drugs designed to stop their unchecked growth. In a new study, researchers uncovered a mechanism of resistance used by a particularly aggressive breast cancer type, and revealed a possible drug combination that could stop cancer growth and also help to prevent resistance.

Forgotten role of reproductive justice in Zika crisis

The media response to the recent Zika virus outbreak has been sensationalized and, as a result, governmental responses have been largely misplaced.

Researchers buoyed by molecule's potential to slow Parkinson's progress

A naturally occurring molecule in the brain, when used as a therapy, may hold a key to stopping the progression of Parkinson's disease, new research has found.

New insights into brain circuit for hunger responses during starvation

Researchers uncover mechanism by which hypothalamic neural signaling drives hunger responses to survive starvation.

Tissue engineering advance reduces heart failure in model of heart attack

Researchers have grown heart tissue by seeding a mix of human cells onto a 1-micron-resolution scaffold made with a 3-D printer. The cells organized themselves in the scaffold to create engineered heart tissue that beats synchronously in culture. When the human-derived heart muscle patch was surgically placed onto a mouse heart after a heart attack, it significantly improved heart function and decreased the amount of dead heart tissue.

Echolocation learning process involves close coordination between sensory and motor cortex

Humans can be trained to use echolocation to estimate the sizes of enclosed spaces. LMU researchers now show that the learning process involves close coordination between sensory and motor cortex.

Mature heart muscle cells created in the laboratory from stem cells

Generating mature and viable heart muscle cells from human or other animal stem cells has proven difficult for biologists. Now, Johns Hopkins researchers report success in creating them in the laboratory by implanting stem cells taken from a healthy adult or one with a type of heart disease into newborn rat hearts.

Kids' sugary drink habits start early

(HealthDay)—Despite health messages to limit sodas and other sugary beverages, most American children drink them often, new government statistics show.

1 in 4 U.S. adults, 1 in 10 teens use tobacco

(HealthDay)—Despite the dangers, many American adults and teens still use tobacco products, a new study finds.

Mental health may affect chances against cancer

(HealthDay)—Anxiety and depression may increase the risk of death from certain cancers, early research suggests.

Meta-analysis: caprini score IDs benefit of VTE prophylaxis

(HealthDay)—Perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is beneficial only for surgical patients with Caprini scores of ≥7, according to a meta-analysis published online Jan. 23 in the Annals of Surgery.

Obesity not linked to low back pain in twin study

(HealthDay)—Obesity-related measures are not associated with the risk of developing chronic low-back pain (LBP) after accounting for genetic factors, according to a study published in the February issue of The Spine Journal.

Diabetes requiring insulin tied to increased stroke risk in A-fib

(HealthDay)—For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), diabetes requiring insulin, but not diabetes without insulin treatment, is associated with an increased risk of stroke/systemic embolism, according to a study published in the Jan. 31 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

USPSTF: Not enough evidence to screen for OSA in asymptomatic

(HealthDay)—Current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults without any known signs or symptoms of the condition, according to a U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation published in the Jan. 24/31 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

CVD, osteoporosis risk up for young thyroid cancer survivors

(HealthDay)—Younger survivors of thyroid cancer are at increased risk for certain types of health problems later in life, according to a study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology's Cancer Survivorship Symposium, held from Jan. 27 to 28 in San Diego.

Climbazole ups retinoid-linked biological activities

(HealthDay)—Climbazole enhances retinoid-associated biological activities in vivo and in vitro, according to a study published online Jan. 19 in the International Journal of Cosmetic Science.

Teleradiology aids in assessment of thoracolumbar spine fractures

(HealthDay)—Video clips of computed tomography (CT) scans can be captured by smartphone and transmitted to surgeons' personal smartphones for reliable diagnosis, classification, and proposed treatment of thoracolumbar spine fractures, according to a study published in the February issue of The Spine Journal.

Eye muscles are resilient to ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known as ALS, is an incurable neurodegenerative disease that affects all voluntary muscles in the body leading to paralysis and breathing difficulties. Eye muscles, in contrast to other muscles, generally retain their mobility even in the final stages of the disease.

How 1000 new genetic variants were discovered in blood groups

1000 new mutations in the blood group genes—that is what physician and former programmer Mattias Möller found in his research study in which he developed new software and investigated blood group genes in 2,504 people. This discovery from Lund University in Sweden was published recently in the journal Blood Advances.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is the root cause of many diseases

Mitochondrial dysfunction is the root cause of many diseases that are bewildering in their variety and complexity. They include rare genetic disorders in children, some forms of heart disease, and most likely many cases of Parkinson's disease.

A common medication restores social deficits in autism mouse model

Reducing the function of the autism-associated gene Pcdh10 leads to impairments in social behavior, according to a study published in Biological Psychiatry. Reducing Pcdh10 function also disrupted the structure and function of circuitry in the amygdala, a brain region implicated in the behavior symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Latest statistics show heart failure on the rise, cardiovascular diseases remain leading killer

The number of adults living with heart failure increased from about 5.7 million (2009-2012) to about 6.5 million (2011-2014), according to the American Heart Association's 2017 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update.

Novel risk genes for bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder (BD), characterized by mood swings between positive manic/hypomanic and negative/depressive states, is a common psychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of ~1%. Although epidemiological studies indicate that genetic components contribute to BD development, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified limited number of susceptibility (risk) genes for BD, most of which are yet unidentified.

Freezing fat: What's new in beauty

Move over liposuction, the new fad in fat is freezing it.

New essay collection challenges 'nature-nurture' debate

For anyone who has ever wondered whether their child's traits are a product of genes or parenting practices, a major new project could help provide the answer.

Data suggests modest physical activity associated with improvement in markers

A new report, based on data from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), suggests that insulin resistance, a predictor of cardiovascular risk and the development of diabetes, may be modulated with even modest levels of physical activity.

Study finds discrepancy between what symptoms patients report, what appears in electronic medical record

Researchers found significant inconsistencies between what symptoms patients at ophthalmology clinics reported on a questionnaire and documentation in the electronic medical record, according to a study published online by JAMA Ophthalmology.

Study tightens connection between intestinal microorganisms, diet, and colorectal cancer

A new study provides some of the strongest evidence to date that microorganisms living in the large intestine can serve as a link between diet and certain types of colorectal cancer, the lead authors at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital report.

Comparison of medical record to self-report of eye symptoms shows wide variation

Compare a patient's self-reported eye symptoms to their electronic medical record, and clear discrepancies can be seen.

Premature babies don't use sensory-prediction brain process that may be key to development

Babies born prematurely don't use their expectations about the world to shape their brains as babies born at full term do, important evidence that this neural process is important to development.

LSD alters perception via serotonin receptors

Researchers from UZH have discovered how the perception of meaning changes in the brain under the influence of LSD. The serotonin 2A receptors are responsible for altered perception. This finding will help develop new courses of pharmacotherapy for psychiatric disorders such as depression, addictions or phobias.

Gene therapy for pompe disease effective in mice, poised for human trials

After decades investigating a rare, life-threatening condition that cripples the muscles, Duke Health researchers have developed a gene therapy they hope could enhance or even replace the only FDA-approved treatment currently available to patients.

Laparoscopic anti-reflux operation for GERD linked to fewer postoperative complications

Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, known as GERD, who undergo laparoscopic anti-reflux operations compared with traditional "open" operations suffer fewer postoperative complications, experience faster recovery, and incur lower health care costs, according to study results published online as an "article in press" on the Journal of the American College of Surgeons website, ahead of print publication.

Scientists describe lab technique with potential to change medicine and research

Researchers who developed and tested a revolutionary laboratory technique that allows for the endless growth of normal and diseased cells in a laboratory are publicly sharing how the technique works.

A cellular system makes the battle against a rare disease personal

Some diseases are untreatable because we lack a model system to fully understand symptoms or test possible drugs. This is the case of mitochondrial disease, a rare condition caused by defects in the "cellular powerhouse." Scientists from the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC) have now developed a new personalized strategy to address mitochondrial disease by reprogramming the patients' cells and used it to identify a promising potential drug.

How the border guards fail in HIV infection

The barrier between the gut and the bloodstream is severely damaged in the first few weeks of infection by HIV-1 virus. This can allow whole microbes in the intestine, as well as tiny pieces of bacteria, to enter the blood and provoke the inflammation that can lead to AIDS—even when replication of the virus is controlled by drug therapy.

Quick-and-dirty DNA repair sets the stage for smoking-related lung cancer

The stem cells that proliferate the most in response to damage caused by cigarette smoke repair their DNA using a process prone to errors, setting the stage for lung cancer, according to a study publishing January 26, 2017 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Marie-Liesse Asselin-Labat and her team of the Walter and Eliza hall Institute of Medical Research, Australia.

Parasite protein could help inform new anti-tuberculosis strategies

Proteins produced by the parasite that causes toxoplasmosis may be involved in immune system processes that can help fight mycobacteria, according to a new study. The findings, published in PLOS Pathogens, suggest that these proteins could potentially play a role in new treatment strategies for tuberculosis.

Growing tumors put the pressure on nutrient-supplying blood vessels

Mechanical pressure caused by cancer growth plays a key role in the development and distribution of blood vessels in tumors, according to a new UCL (University College London) study published in PLOS Computational Biology.

Depression is under-treated in patients receiving chronic dialysis

Many patients with kidney failure who are receiving chronic hemodialysis have depressive symptoms but do not wish to receive aggressive treatment to alleviate them, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN). The study also found that when patients were willing to accept treatment for depression, kidney specialists commonly do not prescribe it.

Anti-inflammatory diet could reduce risk of bone loss in women

Anti-inflammatory diets—which tend to be high in vegetables, fruits, fish and whole grains—could boost bone health and prevent fractures in some women, a new study suggests.

Assessment of comatose patients through telemedicine efforts shown to be reliable

Reliable assessment of comatose patients in intensive care units is critical to the patients' care. Providers must recognize clinical status changes quickly to undertake proper interventions. But does the provider need to be in the same room as the patient, or can robotic telemedicine be used successfully to complete the assessment? According to a research study conducted at Mayo Clinic Hospital in Arizona, published in Telemedicine and e-Health, the answer is yes.

Hospital-led interventions associated with significant reduction in cesarean rate

A new study led by clinician-researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) has found that hospital-led interventions over a seven-year period were associated with a significant reduction in the hospital's Cesarean delivery rate. The study appears online today in The Joint Commission Journal of Quality and Safety.

hCG reduces caspase-3-dependent IL-16 expression

(HealthDay)—Human pregnancy hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) triggers immune suppression by attenuating the processing and release of Caspase-3-dependent interleukin (IL)-16, according to a study published online Jan. 21 in Hepatology.

Study assesses sublingual fentanyl vs morphine for CA pain

(HealthDay)—For patients with severe cancer pain episodes, fentanyl sublingual tablets (FST) offer analgesia with modest to moderate increased risk of lower efficacy compared with subcutaneous morphine (SCM), according to a study published online Jan. 23 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Strategies presented for addressing uncompensated time

(HealthDay)—Strategies can be employed to help physicians deal with the increasing burden of uncompensated tasks, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

Serum trypsinogen levels down in type 1 diabetes

(HealthDay)—Patients with type 1 diabetes have significantly lower serum trypsinogen levels than those without type 1 diabetes, according to a study published online Jan. 23 in Diabetes Care.

Verapamil benefits chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

(HealthDay)—For patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), the first-generation inhibitor of epithelial P-glycoprotein (P-gp; an efflux pump that is overexpressed in CRSwNP), verapamil hydrochloride (HCl), is associated with improvement in outcome measures, according to a letter to the editor study published online Jan. 23 in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

Study: How primary tumor cells are preset for dormancy and evade chemo after spread

In a first of its kind study, Mount Sinai researchers have discovered the conditions by which specific signals in primary tumors of head and neck and breast cancers, pre-program cancer cells to become dormant and evade chemotherapy after spreading. Their findings, published in the January 31, 2017 issue of Nature Cell Biology and featured on the cover, could lead to new drug development, treatment options and transform the way doctors care for cancer patients to treat metastatic disease.

Androgen deprivation therapy not associated with increased risk of Alzheimer disease in patients with prostate cancer

A large-scale, population based study led by Dr. Laurent Azoulay, Senior Investigator with the Lady Davis Institute at the Jewish General Hospital, has concluded that the use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to treat advanced prostate cancer is not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease. This result, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and accompanied by exclusive coverage by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is important because it soothes fears raised by an earlier, very controversial study that asserted a significant and troubling connection.

Kids with ADHD make 6.1 million doctor visits a year in US: CDC

(HealthDay)—Kids with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder account for more than 6 million physician office visits a year in the United States, say U.S. health officials.

Risk of death due to birth defects higher if baby covered by Medicaid

(HealthDay)—Severe birth defects cause about one in every five infant deaths in the United States. Now, new research finds that the odds for one of these tragic events rise if a newborn is covered by Medicaid rather than private insurance.

Amnesia affecting some opioid abusers

(HealthDay)—Short-term memory loss may be yet another price of America's opioid addiction epidemic.

Lessons for optimizing exercise programs

Scientists previously thought that women may not respond to sprint interval training to the same Biological sex has little influence on how the body adapts to sprint interval training. That's according to findings published in Experimental Physiology and carried out at McMaster University, Canada.

Johnson & Johnson says to buy pharma group Actelion for $30 bn (Update)

US pharmaceuticals giant Johnson & Johnson on Thursday announced it was buying Europe's biggest bio-pharmaceutical firm Actelion for $30 billion (27.9 billion euros) in a deal that creates a new spin-off company.

US anti-abortion activists ready to raise their voices

Anti-abortion activists seeking to capitalize on political momentum will stage a major march Friday in Washington, aiming to send a loud message to their most powerful ally: the newest resident of the White House.

Possible new method for treating autism and memory disorders

Scientists at the Tomsk State University exploring myokines, proteins that are produced in the muscles during physical activities, have found that these active agents enhance human cognitive function. Scientists hope to use this feature to treat conditions such as autism, hyperactivity and memory disorders.

Dietitian provides super swaps for the big game

Just as everyone is recovering from holiday eating and getting their new year diet and exercise routine into gear, one of the biggest eating days makes its way onto the calendars. Roberta Anding, a registered dietitian with Baylor College of Medicine, offers some healthy food and drink swaps as the ultimate quarterback sneak for the big game.

Successful phase IIB trial with third-generation grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32

Biomay, a global leader in allergy immunotherapy, announced today that a second Phase IIb study ( identifier NCT02643641) has been successfully completed with its third generation grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32. The study was designed to demonstrate the optimal dose regimen to induce an allergen-specific IgG immune response. Correlation of the immunological effects with the alleviation of allergy symptoms in the subsequent grass pollen season was another important objective of the trial.

Understanding motivations for behavior can be helpful for children with autism

For many families, normal activities, such as going to a large family gathering or an amusement park, can be difficult to navigate with a child with autism, as the child may act out due to being overwhelmed by extra noises and stimulation. To help families deal with such situations, specialists at the University of Missouri Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders have been successfully integrating applied behavior analysis (ABA), the science of understanding why people behave in various ways and how understanding those motivations can shape behavior. SungWoo Kahng, associate professor of health psychology in the School of Health Professions, says that parents and caregivers can work with therapists to implement ABA-based activities at home to support the overall behavior treatment plan.

Researchers find improved preventive care from Obamacare Medicaid expansion

More Americans are taking steps to prevent disease because of the insurance expansions of the Affordable Care Act, according to a new, groundbreaking study by Indiana University and Cornell University researchers.

New drug SAK3 may offer hope to Alzheimer's disease patients

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter in the brain that plays an important role in controlling attention and cognition. Acetylcholine system dysfunction is believed to be one of the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia.

Study in teens shows that brain responses to rewards are linked to pain sensitivity

Patterns of brain responses to rewards are a significant predictor of pain symptoms—a link that is already present by adolescence—and may be influenced by gene variants affecting pain sensitivity, reports a study in PAIN, the official publication of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP).

Limited HIV testing access for Baltimore youth

A new survey of 51 youth-serving, nonclinical, community-based organizations in Baltimore, Maryland, found that the majority did not offer HIV testing, nor did they have established links to refer youth to testing. Organizations that did provide HIV tests were more likely to offer general health services and referral services for sexually transmitted infections screening outside of HIV, and had staff members who were more comfortable talking about sexual health issues.

Can myeloid derived suppressor cells subdue viral infections?

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), produced in the bone marrow as part of the human immune response to a tumor, may have a potent immunoregulatory role following viral infection. The similarities and differences between tumor-induced versus virus-induced MDSCs and the potential to use these cells for targeted immunotherapies are discussed in a review article in Viral Immunology.

New study shows how to avoid weight gain and cardiometabolic disease

To explain why so many people in developed countries are chronically overfed, tend to accumulate fat, and are at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease, researchers suggest looking no further than the revised Food Triangle and a new model for understanding the impact of exercise and the oxidation and breakdown of nutrients to fuel the body. Complex factors such as caloric load, cellular respiration, and even how we perceive food all contribute to this new paradigm for defining healthy eating, which is presented in a review article published in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.

Expanding throughout Indiana, OPTIMISTIC study tests new CMS payment model

Indiana University's OPTIMISTIC study has added an additional 25 facilities across Indiana as it expands its efforts to improve the health and health care of long-term nursing home residents.

Docs: kids to suffer under Trump's tough immigration policies

(HealthDay)—U.S. pediatricians are taking President Donald Trump to task after he issued executive orders Wednesday that—the doctors said—will make the country a much less welcoming place for immigrant children.

NFL says injuries down this season, including concussions

Injuries in the NFL decreased this season, including concussions.

IV contrast for CT is not associated with increased risk of acute kidney injury

Intravenous contrast media (typically iohexol or iodixanol) used in computed tomography (CT) does not appear to be associated with chronic kidney disease, dialysis, kidney transplant or acute kidney injury, despite long-held fears to the contrary. The results of the largest controlled study of acute kidney injury following contrast media administration in the emergency department were published online yesterday in Annals of Emergency Medicine ("Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Following Intravenous Contrast Media Administration").

Arkansas lawmakers OK ban of common abortion procedure

Arkansas is poised to become the third state to ban a commonly used second-trimester abortion procedure under restrictions lawmakers approved Thursday that are expected to face a legal challenge.

Hawaii bill would classify homelessness as medical condition

As an emergency room doctor, Hawaii Sen. Josh Green sees homeless patients suffering from diabetes, mental health problems and an array of medical issues that are more difficult to manage when they are homeless or do not have permanent housing.

Biology news

Mobile torrefaction technology that can convert biomass into clean-burning fuel

India has millions of small farms, many an acre or less in size, cultivating rice, wheat, sugarcane, and other staple crops. And twice a year, when the harvest is done, these farms go up in flames.

Cat experiment suggests they remember in ways similar to humans and dogs

(—A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has found that cats are able to remember events in a way observed in both humans and dogs. In their paper published in the journal Behavioral Processes, the researchers describe their experiments and results.

Scientists map the genetic evolution of dinoflagellates for the first time

A group scientists have used new genetic sequencing data to understand how an ancient organism that lived alongside the dinosaurs has evolved over millions of years. A four-year effort by a genetic research team from a dozen universities has uncovered for the first time the biology and evolution of dinoflagellates, tiny but complex organisms primarily known as marine plankton.

New findings highlight promise of chimeric organisms for science and medicine

Rapid advances in the ability to grow cells, tissues and organs of one species within an organism of a different species offer an unprecedented opportunity for tackling longstanding scientific mysteries and addressing pressing human health problems, particularly the need for transplantable organs and tissues.

Team discovers key to restoring great tomato flavor

What's wrong with the supermarket tomato? Consumers say they lack flavor, so a University of Florida researcher led a global team on a mission to identify the important factors that have been lost and put them back into modern tomatoes.

How insects decide to grow up

Like humans, insects go through puberty. The process is known as metamorphosis. Examples include caterpillars turning into butterflies and maggots turning into flies.

Early onset of winter triggers evolution towards smaller snow voles in Graubunden

Researchers from the University of Zurich have succeeded in documenting an extremely rare case of evolutionary adaptation 'in action' among wild snow voles near Chur. The selective pressure triggered by several consecutive winters with early snowfall resulted in a genetic decrease in body weight. The reason: Smaller voles are fully grown by the time the weather conditions deteriorate.

Caught red-handed: The 'Candy striped hermit crab' is a new species from the Caribbean

Recent underwater photographs and video obtained using scuba equipment by underwater photographer Ellen Muller at dive sites in the National Marine Park of the southern Caribbean island of Bonaire revealed the presence of a small, secretive and brightly colored red-striped hermit crab that proved to represent a species new to science. The new few-millimeter species is described in the open access journal ZooKeys.

New pink dogwood adds breakthrough color to the landscape

Rutgers researchers have developed a hardy, pink dogwood tree that promises to add vibrant color to the landscape in New Jersey and beyond.

15 risks and opportunities to global conservation

or the eighth year running, an international team of experts with experience in horizon scanning, science communication and research have produced a report that identifies arising global conservation issues. The team included Fauna & Flora International's Dr Abigail Entwistle and the results were published in the scientific journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

How strong is an egg?

Why does holding an egg between two hands and pressing along its long axis make it almost impossible to break? Professor Marc Andre Meyers was first puzzled by this as a child growing up in Brazil. He subsequently proposed the problem to his students which resulted in the paper 'Nature's technical ceramic: the avian eggshell' published today in Journal of the Royal Society Interface.

Researchers prove protein synthesis and mRNA degradation are structurally linked

Protein synthesis is programmed by messenger RNAs, and when enough of a given protein has been made, the mRNAs that encode it are destroyed. LMU researchers have now shown that protein synthesis and mRNA degradation are structurally linked.

Study indicates 'Alala calls have changed

A study published in the January edition of the journal Animal Behaviour documents significant changes in the vocalizations that 'alalā make today, when compared with those recorded in the wild more than a decade ago. The study indicates that although the vocal repertoire continues to be rich and varied, it has changed significantly over time. "This is a significant cultural change in the species," said Patrick Hart, a professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Hawaii at Hilo. "Of particular note is the fact that there appear to be fewer alarm and territory calls in the population, and the frequency of alarm calls is greatly reduced."

Spread of diseases in farmed animals shown using social network analysis

Researchers have shown that looking at movements of operators and vehicles between farms in the same way we look at contacts in social networks can help explain the spread of dangerous infectious diseases of livestock, such as foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza. This research, published in PLOS Computational Biology, can contribute to the development of more accurate tools for predicting the spread of livestock diseases and may help implement more effective biosecurity measures in farms.

Scientists develop new flu vaccines for man's best friend

It's that dreaded time of year - flu season. And we humans aren't the only ones feeling the pain. Dogs can get the flu, too.

Rhino genome results: Frozen Zoo collection has same diversity as living population

Genetic Resources Banked in the Frozen Zoo Hold Key to Recovery for Critically Endangered Northern White Rhinoceros

Cincinnati Zoo says premature hippo calf shows progress

The Cincinnati Zoo says a prematurely born baby hippo is showing some signs of progress.

Andean bear survey in Peru Finds humans not the only visitors to Machu Picchu

A recent wildlife survey led by SERNANP (Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado) and WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) in the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu in Peru has confirmed that the world-famous site is also home to a biologically important and iconic species: the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus).

This email is a free service of Science X Network
You received this email because you subscribed to our list.
If you no longer want to receive this email use the link below to unsubscribe.
You are subscribed as

No comments: