Friday, January 27, 2017

Nature Neuroscience Contents: February 2017 Volume 20 Number 2, pp 127 - 296

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Nature Neuroscience

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February 2017 Volume 20, Issue 2

News and Views
Brief Communications
ACS Chemical Neuroscience: Advancing Innovation in Neuroscience

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Focus on neuroimmune communication
Focus issue: February 2017 Volume 20, No 2



Neuroimmune communication   p127
We present a special set of Review articles on neuroimmune communication that highlight how the immune system and nervous system are anatomically connected, mechanistically communicate and reciprocally influence the other's function.

News and Views


The maps they are a-changin': plasticity in odor representation in interneurons   pp128 - 129
Tobias Ackels and Andreas T Schaefer
Representations in excitatory neurons generally narrow as they are refined. Odor representations in interneurons, however, broaden with maturation and learning, as connections between interneurons and projection neurons expand.

See also: Article by Quast et al.

Pass the salt: the central control of sodium intake   pp130 - 131
Amber L Alhadeff and J Nicholas Betley
The biological drive to consume salt ensures that we consume adequate sodium for survival. In this issue of Nature Neuroscience, two articles provide insight into the neurons and circuits that regulate sodium appetite.

See also: Brief Communication by Jarvie & Palmiter | Article by Matsuda et al.

New building blocks for navigation   pp131 - 133
Jeffrey S Taube
Many spatial correlates have been identified that form the neural basis for navigation. Two studies have now uncovered a new cell type: bidirectional cells, which fire when the head is pointing in one of two opposing directions.

See also: Brief Communication by Olson et al. | Brief Communication by Jacob et al.

The maternal 'baby brain' revisited   pp134 - 135
Cindy K Barha and Liisa A M Galea
Pregnancy results in changes to maternal physiology and brain that may extend into older age. New results show that pregnancy-induced reductions in gray matter volume remain 2 years after childbirth in humans.

See also: Article by Hoekzema et al.

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The role of peripheral immune cells in the CNS in steady state and disease   pp136 - 144
Marco Prinz and Josef Priller
Historically, the CNS has been considered immunologically privileged and separated from the peripheral immune system. In this Review, the authors highlight recent advances in our understanding of how the CNS interacts with peripheral immune cells in the context of health and disease.

Interactions between the microbiota, immune and nervous systems in health and disease   pp145 - 155
Thomas C Fung, Christine A Olson and Elaine Y Hsiao

Neural regulation of immunity: molecular mechanisms and clinical translation   pp156 - 166
Valentin A Pavlov and Kevin J Tracey
Neural pathways regulate immune responses and inflammation. Recent research using technological advances in molecular genetics has provided important insights into the functional anatomy and cellular and molecular mechanisms of this regulation. These advances resulted in clinical trials exploring neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.

Brief Communications


HSD2 neurons in the hindbrain drive sodium appetite   pp167 - 169
Brooke C Jarvie and Richard D Palmiter
Activation of putative aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the hindbrain drives mice to drink sodium solutions, and this appetite is distinct from thirst and hunger. These neurons are critical for animals to fully develop a sodium appetite following sodium depletion, although there is likely redundant circuitry.

See also: Article by Matsuda et al. | News and Views by Alhadeff & Betley

Subiculum neurons map the current axis of travel   pp170 - 172
Jacob M Olson, Kanyanat Tongprasearth and Douglas A Nitz
Using an environment composed of interconnected paths, the authors demonstrate that subiculum encodes a previously unrecognized form of spatial information, the axis of travel. This discovery has implications for how path positions and orientations can be related to the larger environment.

See also: Brief Communication by Jacob et al. | News and Views by Taube

An independent, landmark-dominated head-direction signal in dysgranular retrosplenial cortex   pp173 - 175
Pierre-Yves Jacob, Giulio Casali, Laure Spieser, Hector Page, Dorothy Overington et al.
The authors report on a subpopulation of neurons in retrosplenial cortex that is more sensitive to head direction in a local, visually defined reference frame than to global head direction. These neurons may be the means by which visual landmark information can influence the overall sense of direction.

See also: Brief Communication by Olson et al. | News and Views by Taube

Portable fNIRS System 

Shimadzu's LIGHTNIRS expands opportunities for brain imaging research by providing high-quality Blood Oxygen Level Dependent signals of the cerebral cortex in a compact, wearable design. The portability of LIGHTNIRS allows visualizing brain function activity in real time in a more natural state than other methods. Learn more.



Molecular interrogation of hypothalamic organization reveals distinct dopamine neuronal subtypes   pp176 - 188
Roman A Romanov, Amit Zeisel, Joanne Bakker, Fatima Girach, Arash Hellysaz et al.
The hypothalamus is a brain region rich in functionally segregated neurons. Here Romanov and colleagues use single-cell RNA sequencing to distinguish 62 neuronal subtypes and define their neuropeptide and neurotransmitter makeup. They then show that onecut-3-containing dopamine neurons populate the periventricular area and are wired into the circadian circuitry.

Developmental broadening of inhibitory sensory maps   pp189 - 199
Kathleen B Quast, Kevin Ung, Emmanouil Froudarakis, Longwen Huang, Isabella Herman et al.
The authors show that, unlike the consolidation and refinement of excitatory connections observed during sensory map formation, a dramatic broadening of patterned activation domains, connectivity, and tuning occurs in interneurons in the olfactory bulb. This developmental expansion is sensitive to activity manipulations and may reveal general principles of interneuron network development.

See also: News and Views by Ackels & Schaefer

Stream-dependent development of higher visual cortical areas   pp200 - 208
Ikuko T Smith, Leah B Townsend, Ruth Huh, Hongtu Zhu and Spencer L Smith
Vision is processed across multiple cortical areas that are organized into two subnetworks in primates. However, the generality of this organization and its development are unclear. Smith and colleagues present functional evidence for the analogous two subnetworks in mice and map their differential developmental dynamics.

Small-molecule inhibition of STOML3 oligomerization reverses pathological mechanical hypersensitivity   pp209 - 218
Christiane Wetzel, Simone Pifferi, Cristina Picci, Caglar Gök, Diana Hoffmann et al.
The authors developed small-molecule inhibitors of STOML3 oligomerization, a membrane protein that interacts with mechanosensitive ion channels, such as Piezo2. One of these molecules was effective in silencing touch receptors and reversed touch-evoked pain associated with nerve injury or diabetic neuropathy.

Modulation of excitation on parvalbumin interneurons by neuroligin-3 regulates the hippocampal network   pp219 - 229
Jai S Polepalli, Hemmings Wu, Debanjan Goswami, Casey H Halpern, Thomas C Sudhof et al.
The authors show that postsynaptic deletion of neuroligin-3 from parvalbumin interneurons causes a decrease in NMDA-receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and an increase in presynaptic glutamate release probability linked to a deficit in presynaptic Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor function. This selective disruption of excitatory transmission on parvalbumin interneurons leads to abnormal hippocampal network activity and a decrease in contextual fear extinction.

Distinct neural mechanisms for the control of thirst and salt appetite in the subfornical organ   pp230 - 241
Takashi Matsuda, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Fumio Niimura, Taiji Matsusaka, Akiyoshi Fukamizu et al.
Body fluid conditions are continuously monitored in the brain in order to regulate thirst and salt appetites. Through a combination of optogenetics and electrophysiology, the authors reveal distinct neural mechanisms in the subfornical organ for generating appropriate water- and salt-intake behaviors according to body fluid conditions.

See also: Brief Communication by Jarvie & Palmiter | News and Views by Alhadeff & Betley

Separate elements of episodic memory subserved by distinct hippocampal-prefrontal connections   pp242 - 250
Gareth R I Barker, Paul J Banks, Hannah Scott, G Scott Ralph, Kyriacos A Mitrophanous et al.
Episodic memory involves encoding an event's temporal and spatial context. The authors show that temporal information is mediated by a direct projection from the dorsal CA1 field of the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex, while spatial information is processed in a separate hippocampal-prefrontal cortex projection originating in intermediate CA1.

A cortical-hippocampal-cortical loop of information processing during memory consolidation   pp251 - 259
Gideon Rothschild, Elad Eban and Loren M Frank
How the hippocampus and sensory cortical regions interact during memory consolidation is largely unknown. The authors identify a rapid loop of information flow from auditory cortex to the hippocampus and back, around the times of hippocampal sharp wave ripples, which coordinates memory reactivation during sleep across these brain areas.

Prefrontal cortical control of a brainstem social behavior circuit   pp260 - 270
Tamara B Franklin, Bianca A Silva, Zinaida Perova, Livia Marrone, Maria E Masferrer et al.
The authors describe cortical projections mediating the modulation of social behavior. Neural projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the dorsal periaqueductal gray play a critical role in the behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice.

Emotional brain states carry over and enhance future memory formation   pp271 - 278
Arielle Tambini, Ulrike Rimmele, Elizabeth A Phelps and Lila Davachi
Emotional arousal is known to produce long-lasting memories for emotional experiences. Here the authors find that brain states associated with emotional arousal can persist tens of minutes later, biasing and enhancing how new, unrelated information is encoded into memory and later remembered.

Manipulating stored phonological input during verbal working memory   pp279 - 286
Gregory B Cogan, Asha Iyer, Lucia Melloni, Thomas Thesen, Daniel Friedman et al.
Cognitive tasks require storing and manipulating information for short periods of time. Verbal working memory involves storing and manipulating speech information, but the underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown. The authors identify storage systems for sensory and motor representations and two distinct manipulation systems, demonstrating that multiple subsystems comprise verbal working memory.

Pregnancy leads to long-lasting changes in human brain structure   pp287 - 296
Elseline Hoekzema, Erika Barba-Müller, Cristina Pozzobon, Marisol Picado, Florencio Lucco et al.
The authors show that pregnancy involves substantial and consistent structural changes in the human brain, primarily located in regions subserving social cognition. These changes overlap with areas that respond to the mothers' babies and predict measures of postpartum maternal attachment. Moreover, they endure for at least 2 years after pregnancy.

See also: News and Views by Barha & Galea

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