Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Nature Communications - 07 December 2016

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Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development OPEN
Atse Louwen, Wilfried G. J. H. M. van Sark, André P. C. Faaij and Ruud E. I. Schropp
While the photovoltaic industry aims to achieve cleaner energy production, it consumes energy and emits greenhouse gases during production and deployment. Here, Louwen et al. show that the industry has likely already reached break-even points for both greenhouse gases emissions and electricity consumption.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13728

Blood flow controls bone vascular function and osteogenesis OPEN
Saravana K. Ramasamy, Anjali P. Kusumbe, Maria Schiller, Dagmar Zeuschner, M. Gabriele Bixel, Carlo Milia, Jaba Gamrekelashvili, Anne Limbourg, Alexander Medvinsky, Massimo M. Santoro, Florian P. Limbourg and Ralf H. Adams
Formation of new blood vessels and bone is coupled. Here the authors show that blood flow represents a key regulator of angiogenesis and endothelial Notch signalling in the bone, and that reactivation of Notch signalling in the endothelium of aged mice rejuvenates the bone.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13601

Large differences in regional precipitation change between a first and second 2 K of global warming OPEN
Peter Good, Ben B. B. Booth, Robin Chadwick, Ed Hawkins, Alexandra Jonko and Jason A. Lowe
It is often assumed that each additional degree of global warming impacts regional climate equally. Here, Good et al. use the CMIP5 archive to show different precipitation changes arise from 0–2 K versus 2–4 K of warming above pre-industrial levels, partly from nonlinearity in underlying physical mechanisms.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13667

WRN regulates pathway choice between classical and alternative non-homologous end joining OPEN
Raghavendra A. Shamanna, Huiming Lu, Jessica K. de Freitas, Jane Tian, Deborah L. Croteau and Vilhelm A. Bohr
Werner Syndrome is an accelerated aging disorder marked by genome instability, large deletions and telomere fusions, hallmarks of aberrant DNA repair. Here the authors report a role for the WRN helicase in regulating the choice between classical and alternative non-homologous end-joning.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13785

Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century OPEN
Ilia Rochlin, Ary Faraji, Dominick V. Ninivaggi, Christopher M. Barker and A. Marm Kilpatrick
Insect populations have fluctuated enormously over the past century, with many changes being attributed to anthropogenic climate change. Rochlin et al. show that the pesticide DDT and increasing urbanization are more strongly associated with changes in the number and diversity of mosquitoes on both coasts of North America.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13604

PET imaging-guided chemogenetic silencing reveals a critical role of primate rostromedial caudate in reward evaluation OPEN
Yuji Nagai, Erika Kikuchi, Walter Lerchner, Ken-ichi Inoue, Bin Ji, Mark A. G. Eldridge, Hiroyuki Kaneko, Yasuyuki Kimura, Arata Oh-Nishi, Yukiko Hori, Yoko Kato, Toshiyuki Hirabayashi, Atsushi Fujimoto, Katsushi Kumata, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi, Masahiko Takada, Barry J. Richmond et al.
Processing the value of reward is thought to involve the rostromedial caudate (rmCD), but a causal demonstration is lacking in primates. Here the authors use chemogenetics and PET imaging to show that inactivation of rmCD leads to impairments in reward value judgments.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13605

GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon OPEN
Gustav Hellström, Jonatan Klaminder, Fia Finn, Lo Persson, Anders Alanärä, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick and Tomas Brodin
Fish migration is influenced by various environmental factors such as chemicals in water. Here, Hellstrom et al. show that an anxiolytic drug in the benzodiazepine family, oxazepam, can promote migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon smolts in both laboratory setting and river tributary in Sweden.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13460

Structural basis of myelin-associated glycoprotein adhesion and signalling OPEN
Matti F. Pronker, Suzanne Lemstra, Joost Snijder, Albert J. R. Heck, Dominique M. E. Thies-Weesie, R. Jeroen Pasterkamp and Bert J. C. Janssen
Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) maintains myelin-axon spacing. Here, the authors report the crystal structures of the MAG full ectodomain in complex with oligosaccharide, and use additional assays to provide insights into the mechanism of MAG-mediated signalling.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13584

Membrane pyrophosphatases from Thermotoga maritima and Vigna radiata suggest a conserved coupling mechanism OPEN
Kun-Mou Li, Craig Wilkinson, Juho Kellosalo, Jia-Yin Tsai, Tommi Kajander, Lars J. C. Jeuken, Yuh-Ju Sun and Adrian Goldman
In some parasites, membrane-bound pyrophosphatases, which couple proton and sodium ion transport across the membrane, are important for infectivity. Here, the authors report crystal structures of these proteins alongside biophysical analyses that allow them to propose a model for how the coupling is achieved.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13596

Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere OPEN
Jianqi Qin and Lara Waldrop
Model predictions of atomic hydrogen behaviour in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with geocoronal observations. Here, using satellite measurements, Qin and Waldrop note the existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, reconciling observational modelling differences.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13655

Generation of internal solitary waves by frontally forced intrusions in geophysical flows OPEN
Daniel Bourgault, Peter S. Galbraith and Cédric Chavanne
Internal solitary waves are widespread within oceans, lakes and the atmosphere but their origin is uncertain. Here we show a rare natural case of the birth of internal solitary waves arising from the head of a frontally-forced intrusion as observed in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13606

Defining functional interactions during biogenesis of epithelial junctions OPEN
J. C. Erasmus, S. Bruche, L. Pizarro, N. Maimari, T. Pogglioli, C. Tomlinson, J. Lees, I. Zalivina, A. Wheeler, A. Alberts, A. Russo and V. M. M. Braga
Formation and reinforcement of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion depends on intracellular trafficking and interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, but how these are coordinated is not known. Here the authors conduct a focused phenotypic screen to identify new pathways regulating cell–cell junction homeostasis.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13542

MEK inhibitors block growth of lung tumours with mutations in ataxia–telangiectasia mutated OPEN
Michal Smida, Ferran Fece de la Cruz, Claudia Kerzendorfer, Iris Z. Uras, Barbara Mair, Abdelghani Mazouzi, Tereza Suchankova, Tomasz Konopka, Amanda M. Katz, Keren Paz, Katalin Nagy-Bojarszky, Markus K. Muellner, Zsuzsanna Bago-Horvath, Eric B. Haura, Joanna I. Loizou and Sebastian M. B. Nijman
ATM is a tumor suppressor often mutated in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, the authors starting from a synthetic lethal screen, demonstrate that tumor cells with mutations in ATM exhibit increased sensitivity to MEK1/2 inhibition through the modulation of the AKT/mTOR pathway.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13701

Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium OPEN
D. J. Reynolds, J. D. Scourse, P. R. Halloran, A. J. Nederbragt, A. D. Wanamaker, P. G. Butler, C. A. Richardson, J. Heinemeier, J. Eiríksson, K. L. Knudsen and I. R. Hall
A lack of annually resolved climate records from the marine archive limits our understanding of oceanic processes. Here, the authors present a millennial-length, annually-resolved and absolutely-dated marine δ18O record from the shells of marine bivalves and offer insight into North Atlantic climate dynamics.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13502

Targeting the Notch-regulated non-coding RNA TUG1 for glioma treatment OPEN
Keisuke Katsushima, Atsushi Natsume, Fumiharu Ohka, Keiko Shinjo, Akira Hatanaka, Norihisa Ichimura, Shinya Sato, Satoru Takahashi, Hiroshi Kimura, Yasushi Totoki, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Mitsuru Naito, Hyun Jin Kim, Kanjiro Miyata, Kazunori Kataoka and Yutaka Kondo
Self-renewal of cancer stem cells can contribute to glioma progression. Here, the authors show that Notch1 activation in glioma stem cells induces expression of the lncRNA TUG1, which promotes self-renewal through the repression of differentiation genes, and that targeting TUG1 represses glioma growth in vivo.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13616

Nanomechanical motion transduction with a scalable localized gap plasmon architecture OPEN
Brian J. Roxworthy and Vladimir A. Aksyuk
Flexible approaches are required for building plasmomechanical devices for tunable optical devices. Here, Roxworthy et al. introduce a plasmonic-nanoelectromechanical systems device where gap plasmon resonators are embedded into arrays of moving silicon nitride nanostructures, yielding thousands of devices per chip.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13746

Detecting stoichiometry of macromolecular complexes in live cells using FRET OPEN
Manu Ben-Johny, Daniel N. Yue and David T. Yue
Measuring the in vivo stoichiometry of protein-protein interactions is challenging. Here the authors take a FRET-based approach, quantifying stoichiometry based on ratiometric comparison of donor and acceptor fluorescence, and apply their method to report on a Ca2+-induced switch in calmodulin binding to Ca2+ ion channels.
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13709

Interatomic Coulombic decay cascades in multiply excited neon clusters OPEN
K. Nagaya, D. Iablonskyi, N. V. Golubev, K. Matsunami, H. Fukuzawa, K. Motomura, T. Nishiyama, T. Sakai, T. Tachibana, S. Mondal, S. Wada, K. C. Prince, C. Callegari, C. Miron, N. Saito, M. Yabashi, Ph. V. Demekhin, L. S. Cederbaum, A. I. Kuleff, M. Yao et al.
Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) is a relaxation of an atom in a weakly bound environment by the transfer of excess energy to ionize the neighbouring atom. Here the authors observe intra-Rydberg ICD in neon clusters, which is a decay that involves the ionization of Rydberg atoms in the cluster.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13477

Critical exponents and scaling invariance in the absence of a critical point OPEN
N. Saratz, D. A. Zanin, U. Ramsperger, S. Cannas, D. Pescia and A. Vindigni
Thermodynamic observables develop power laws and singularities when approaching the Curie point of a ferromagnetic phase transition. Here, Saratz et al. demonstrate that topological excitations (that is, magnetic domains in Fe/Cu(100) films that even persist above the Curie point) remove those singularities compatibly with an avoided critical point.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13611

Actin activates Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoY nucleotidyl cyclase toxin and ExoY-like effector domains from MARTX toxins OPEN
Alexander Belyy, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Cosmin Saveanu, Abdelkader Namane, Vasily Ogryzko, Lina Worpenberg, Violaine David, Veronique Henriot, Souad Fellous, Christien Merrifield, Elodie Assayag, Daniel Ladant, Louis Renault and Undine Mechold
The ExoY toxin is injected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa into host cells, where it is activated by an unknown host factor. Here the authors identify such factor as filamentous actin.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13582

Spatiotemporal control of interferon-induced JAK/STAT signalling and gene transcription by the retromer complex OPEN
Daniela Chmiest, Nanaocha Sharma, Natacha Zanin, Christine Viaris de Lesegno, Massiullah Shafaq-Zadah, Vonick Sibut, Florent Dingli, Philippe Hupé, Stephan Wilmes, Jacob Piehler, Damarys Loew, Ludger Johannes, Gideon Schreiber and Christophe Lamaze
Endocytosis of the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) is required for JAK/STAT signalling. Here the authors show that the internalized IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 subunits are differentially sorted by the retromer complex at the early endosome and this controls JAK/STAT signalling and gene transcription.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13476

Interrogating the degradation pathways of unstable mRNAs with XRN1-resistant sequences OPEN
Volker Boehm, Jennifer V. Gerbracht, Marie-Charlotte Marx and Niels H. Gehring
Degradation of messenger RNA is a key regulatory step in controlling eukaryotic gene expression. Here the authors present xrFrag, a molecular tool to interrogate the extent and directionality of mRNA turnover by the detection of stabilized decay intermediates produced by several common decay pathways.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13691

Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1−xTe2 OPEN
Ilya Belopolski, Daniel S. Sanchez, Yukiaki Ishida, Xingchen Pan, Peng Yu, Su-Yang Xu, Guoqing Chang, Tay-Rong Chang, Hao Zheng, Nasser Alidoust, Guang Bian, Madhab Neupane, Shin-Ming Huang, Chi-Cheng Lee, You Song, Haijun Bu, Guanghou Wang, Shisheng Li, Goki Eda, Horng-Tay Jeng et al.
A Type II Weyl fermion semimetal has been predicted in Mo x W1−x Te2, but it awaits experimental evidence. Here, Belopolski et al. observe a topological Fermi arc in Mo x W1−x Te2, showing it originates from a Type II Weyl fermion and offering a new platform to study novel transport phenomena in Weyl semimetals.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13643

SCN4B acts as a metastasis-suppressor gene preventing hyperactivation of cell migration in breast cancer OPEN
Emeline Bon, Virginie Driffort, Frédéric Gradek, Carlos Martinez-Caceres, Monique Anchelin, Pablo Pelegrin, Maria-Luisa Cayuela, Séverine Marionneau-Lambot, Thibauld Oullier, Roseline Guibon, Gaëlle Fromont, Jorge L. Gutierrez-Pajares, Isabelle Domingo, Eric Piver, Alain Moreau, Julien Burlaud-Gaillard, Philippe G. Frank, Stéphan Chevalier, Pierre Besson & Sébastien Roger
The capacity of cancer cells to migrate is intimately linked to their ability to induce metastasis. Here the authors show that the sodium channel β4 subunit regulates breast cancer cell migration via inhibition of RhoA activation, independently from its function as an auxiliary protein of the sodium channel.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13648

Multivalent contacts of the Hsp70 Ssb contribute to its architecture on ribosomes and nascent chain interaction OPEN
Marie A. Hanebuth, Roman Kityk, Sandra J. Fries, Alok Jain, Allison Kriel, Veronique Albanese, Tancred Frickey, Christine Peter, Matthias P. Mayer, Judith Frydman and Elke Deuerling
The correct folding of proteins often requires the intervention molecular chaperones, which can occur co-translationally. Here the authors identify elements of yeast Ssb (Hsp70) that mediate ribosomal binding, and suggest a mechanism that directs efficient interaction of Ssb with the nascent chain.
05 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13695

L-type calcium channels regulate filopodia stability and cancer cell invasion downstream of integrin signalling OPEN
Guillaume Jacquemet, Habib Baghirov, Maria Georgiadou, Harri Sihto, Emilia Peuhu, Pierre Cettour-Janet, Tao He, Merja Perälä, Pauliina Kronqvist, Heikki Joensuu and Johanna Ivaska
Filopodia have a prominent role in driving cancer cell invasion. Here, the authors show that L-type calcium channels are a druggable target regulating filopodia stability and maturation into focal adhesions in metastatic breast cancer cells.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13297

Human antibody 3E1 targets the HA stem region of H1N1 and H5N6 influenza A viruses OPEN
Wenshuai Wang, Xiaoyu Sun, Yanbing Li, Jinpeng Su, Zhiyang Ling, Tianlong Zhang, Fang Wang, Hong Zhang, Hualan Chen, Jianping Ding and Bing Sun
Treatment of influenza A viruses with broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is an area of active research. Here, the authors characterise a human monoclonal antibody called 3E1 that was reactive against both H1 and H5 viruses in vitro and demonstrated some treatment efficacy in mice.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13577

A grand unified model for liganded gold clusters OPEN
Wen Wu Xu, Beien Zhu, Xiao Cheng Zeng and Yi Gao
There is no one theoretical model that can explain the stability of all known liganded gold clusters. Here, the authors present a grand unified model, inspired by the quark model of particle physics, which describes gold clusters as combinations of stable triangular Au3(2e) and tetragonal Au4(2e) ‘composite particles’ built from gold atom ‘elementary particles’.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13574

Holographic free-electron light source OPEN
Guanhai Li, Brendan P. Clarke, Jin-Kyu So, Kevin F. MacDonald and Nikolay I. Zheludev
Controlling the generation of light in nano-scale systems is a challenging task and is of growing importance. Here, Li et al. propose a means of controlling the wavefront of light emanating from a single nano scale emitter by holographic principles using a plasmonic metasurface.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13705

Molecular imaging with engineered physiology OPEN
Mitul Desai, Adrian L. Slusarczyk, Ashley Chapin, Mariya Barch and Alan Jasanoff
The vasculature produces strong endogenous contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here Desai et al. report genetically encoded imaging probes derived from the vasodilator, calcitonin gene-related peptide, which allows visualization of molecular events via haemodynamic changes in optical imaging or MRI.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13607

Hydroxyl radical-induced formation of highly oxidized organic compounds OPEN
Torsten Berndt, Stefanie Richters, Tuija Jokinen, Noora Hyttinen, Theo Kurtén, Rasmus V. Otkjær, Henrik G. Kjaergaard, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Mikko Sipilä, Markku Kulmala and Mikael Ehn
Secondary organic aerosols are important contributors to the Earth’s radiation budget, however questions remain about their formation from highly-oxidized precursors. Here the authors show that the daytime reaction of hydroxyl radicals with α- and β-pinene is a greater source of highly-oxidized products than previously assumed.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13677

Dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance field sensing with part-per-trillion resolution OPEN
Simon Gross, Christoph Barmet, Benjamin E. Dietrich, David O. Brunner, Thomas Schmid and Klaas P. Pruessmann
The measurement of high magnetic fields has been limited to sensitivities in the nanotesla range. Here, the authors report advances in high-field magnetometry based on nuclear magnetic resonance, achieving resolution in the order of picoteslas or one part per trillion in relative terms.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13702

Rapid mapping of polarization switching through complete information acquisition OPEN
Suhas Somnath, Alex Belianinov, Sergei V. Kalinin and Stephen Jesse
Resolution of classical piezoresponse force microscopy is limited in data acquisition rates and energy scales. Here, Somnath et al. report an approach for rapid probing of ferroelectric switching using direct strain detection of material response to probe bias, enabling spectroscopic imaging at a rate of 3,504 times faster the current state of the art.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13290

The genetic basis and fitness consequences of sperm midpiece size in deer mice OPEN
Heidi S. Fisher, Emily Jacobs-Palmer, Jean-Marc Lassance and Hopi E. Hoekstra
Across species there are large changes in sperm morphology, yet how and why is unclear. Here, the authors show in Peromyscus mice, that the sperm midpiece length influences swimming speed and male fertility, and is regulated by cell-type specific expression of a ubiquitously expressed gene, Prkar1a.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13652

Kaleidoscopic imaging patterns of complex structures fabricated by laser-induced deformation OPEN
Haoran Zhang, Fengyou Yang, Jianjie Dong, Lena Du, Chuang Wang, Jianming Zhang, Chuan Fei Guo and Qian Liu
Complex surface micro- and nanostructures can be useful in many device applications, but are challenging in terms of controllability, low cost and high throughput. Here the authors have fabricated quasi 3D structures by the thermal deformation of simple two-dimensional laser-induced patterns.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13743

Efficiency limits for photoelectrochemical water-splitting OPEN
Katherine T. Fountaine, Hans Joachim Lewerenz and Harry A. Atwater
Theoretical limiting efficiencies play a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes. Here, the authors present a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized.
02 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13706

Structure of the RBM7–ZCCHC8 core of the NEXT complex reveals connections to splicing factors OPEN
Sebastian Falk, Ksenia Finogenova, Mireille Melko, Christian Benda, Søren Lykke-Andersen, Torben Heick Jensen and Elena Conti
RBM7 and ZCCHC8 are two core subunits of the Nuclear Exosome Targeting complex, which regulates the degradation of selected non-coding RNAs in human cells. Here, the authors use structural and biochemical methods to show how ZCCHC8 recruits RBM7 in the complex, leaving the RNA binding site accessible and revealing possible implications for splicing.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13573

Chirped pulse amplification in an extreme-ultraviolet free-electron laser OPEN
David Gauthier, Enrico Allaria, Marcello Coreno, Ivan Cudin, Hugo Dacasa, Miltcho Boyanov Danailov, Alexander Demidovich, Simone Di Mitri, Bruno Diviacco, Eugenio Ferrari, Paola Finetti, Fabio Frassetto, David Garzella, Swen Künzel, Vincent Leroux, Benoît Mahieu, Nicola Mahne, Michael Meyer, Tommaso Mazza, Paolo Miotti et al.
Short laser pulses of femtosecond time scales are in high demand in order to explore the fast electron dynamics in light-matter interactions. Here, the authors demonstrated the compression of free electron laser pulses in the extreme ultraviolet range by using a chirped pulse amplification technique.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13688

LncBRM initiates YAP1 signalling activation to drive self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells OPEN
Pingping Zhu, Yanying Wang, Jiayi Wu, Guanling Huang, Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Ying Du, Guangxia Gao, Yong Tian, Lei He and Zusen Fan
Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) may contribute to the high rate of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, the authors show that the long coding RNA, LcnBRM, regulates the self-renewal of liver CSCs and tumour initiation through binding to BAF complex thereby activating YAP1.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13608

11.4% Efficiency non-fullerene polymer solar cells with trialkylsilyl substituted 2D-conjugated polymer as donor OPEN
Haijun Bin, Liang Gao, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yankang Yang, Yindong Zhang, Chunfeng Zhang, Shanshan Chen, Lingwei Xue, Changduk Yang, Min Xiao and Yongfang Li
In organic photovoltaics, non-fullerene acceptors relax matching rules and allow for the development of new donor polymers. Here, Bin et al. design a donor polymer and obtain high photoconversion efficiencies despite the low energy offset for hole transfer between the acceptor and the donor.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13651

Atomic structure of the innexin-6 gap junction channel determined by cryo-EM OPEN
Atsunori Oshima, Kazutoshi Tani and Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
Gap junctions have critical roles in maintaining homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Here the authors present cryo-EM structures of the C. elegans innexin-6 gap junction channel, revealing high structural similarity to human connexin 26 despite a different oligomeric number and lack of sequence similarity.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13681

UVR2 ensures transgenerational genome stability under simulated natural UV-B in Arabidopsis thaliana OPEN
Eva-Maria Willing, Thomas Piofczyk, Andreas Albert, J. Barbro Winkler, Korbinian Schneeberger and Ales Pecinka
As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to recurrent solar UV-B radiation that can induce DNA damage. Here, the authors characterize mutations that occur in Arabidopsis under light regimes simulating natural UV-B exposure and find that the UVR2 photolyase is the major component required to maintain genome stability.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13522

Outside-in integrin signalling regulates haematopoietic stem cell function via Periostin-Itgav axis OPEN
Satish Khurana, Sarah Schouteden, Javed K. Manesia, Albert Santamaria-Martínez, Joerg Huelsken, Adam Lacy-Hulbert and Catherine M. Verfaillie
Integrins regulate haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis and engraftment into the bone marrow (BM) niche upon transplantation. Here, the authors show that HSC quiescence and function in the BM is regulated by the interaction of PERIOSTIN and INTEGRIN αv and subsequent increase in p27Kip1.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13500

Nitrous oxide as a function of oxygen and archaeal gene abundance in the North Pacific OPEN
Mark Trimmer, Panagiota-Myrsini Chronopoulou, Susanna T. Maanoja, Robert C. Upstill-Goddard, Vassilis Kitidis and Kevin J. Purdy
Understanding the production processes behind oceanic sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, is of critical importance. Here, the authors reveal an archaeal-mediated N2O production pathway in the North Pacific, which increases exponentially with decreasing oxygen.
01 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13451

Platinum single-atom and cluster catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction OPEN
Niancai Cheng, Samantha Stambula, Da Wang, Mohammad Norouzi Banis, Jian Liu, Adam Riese, Biwei Xiao, Ruying Li, Tsun-Kong Sham, Li-Min Liu, Gianluigi A. Botton and Xueliang Sun
Downsizing platinum based nanocatalysts has the twin advantages of lower platinum usage and increased activity per platinum atom. Here, the authors report an atomic layer deposition technique for single platinum atom catalyst fabrication and assess their hydrogen evolution activity.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13638

Stacked antiaromatic porphyrins OPEN
Ryo Nozawa, Hiroko Tanaka, Won-Young Cha, Yongseok Hong, Ichiro Hisaki, Soji Shimizu, Ji-Young Shin, Tim Kowalczyk, Stephan Irle, Dongho Kim and Hiroshi Shinokubo
It has been proposed that stacking antiaromatic molecules can build three-dimensional aromaticity, but this claim has lacked experimental validation. Here the authors report that π–π stacked antiaromatic porphyrins display significantly reduced antiaromaticity in solid state and in solution.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13620

Small heat shock proteins sequester misfolding proteins in near-native conformation for cellular protection and efficient refolding OPEN
Sophia Ungelenk, Fatemeh Moayed, Chi-Ting Ho, Tomas Grousl, Annette Scharf, Alireza Mashaghi, Sander Tans, Matthias P. Mayer, Axel Mogk and Bernd Bukau
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) contribute to cellular recovery and survival following stress causing elevated levels of misfolded or unfolded proteins. Here the authors demonstrate that sHsps function by maintaining aggregating proteins in close-to-native conformations to facilitate chaperone-mediated refolding.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13673

Fatty acid metabolic reprogramming via mTOR-mediated inductions of PPARγ directs early activation of T cells OPEN
Mulki Angela, Yusuke Endo, Hikari K. Asou, Takeshi Yamamoto, Damon J. Tumes, Hirotake Tokuyama, Koutaro Yokote and Toshinori Nakayama
PPARγ promotes free fatty acid uptake and also has a role in T cell regulation. Here the authors show that mTORC1-PPARγ signalling is needed for fatty acid uptake by activated CD4+ T cells and for clonal expansion of these cells.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13683

Revealing the spin–vibronic coupling mechanism of thermally activated delayed fluorescence OPEN
Marc K. Etherington, Jamie Gibson, Heather F. Higginbotham, Thomas J. Penfold and Andrew P. Monkman
Knowing the photophysics of thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) is crucial when designing organic light emitting diodes. Here the authors show that spin orbit coupling in TADF materials is described by a second order vibronic coupling mechanism, and demonstrate the importance of resonance effects to achieve efficient TADF.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13680

Additives for vaccine storage to improve thermal stability of adenoviruses from hours to months OPEN
Maria Pelliccia, Patrizia Andreozzi, Jayson Paulose, Marco D’Alicarnasso, Valeria Cagno, Manuela Donalisio, Andrea Civra, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Nicole Haese, Paulo Jacob Silva, Randy P. Carney, Varpu Marjomäki, Daniel N. Streblow, David Lembo, Francesco Stellacci, Vincenzo Vitelli and Silke Krol
Keeping viral vaccines cold from the manufacturers to patients is problematic and costly. Here, Krol and others show additives that can significantly improve at very low concentrations the storage of adenovirus type 5 at ambient and elevated temperature.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13520

Structural decoding of netrin-4 reveals a regulatory function towards mature basement membranes OPEN
Raphael Reuten, Trushar R. Patel, Matthew McDougall, Nicolas Rama, Denise Nikodemus, Benjamin Gibert, Jean-Guy Delcros, Carina Prein, Markus Meier, Stéphanie Metzger, Zhigang Zhou, Jennifer Kaltenberg, Karen K. McKee, Tobias Bald, Thomas Tüting, Paola Zigrino, Valentin Djonov, Wilhelm Bloch, Hauke Clausen-Schaumann, Ernst Poschl et al.
Netrins are secreted guidance factors that promote axon outgrowth and orientation during nervous system development. Here the authors present structural and biological evidence that netrin-4 is not a guidance cue per se, but rather functions to modulate laminin-laminin interactions.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13515

Multifunctional non-woven fabrics of interfused graphene fibres OPEN
Zheng Li, Zhen Xu, Yingjun Liu, Ran Wang and Chao Gao
Carbon-based fibres are at the core of electrically conductive multifunctional fabrics, yet improving the weak interaction between fibres remains a challenge. Here, the authors demonstrate an assembly method where graphene fibres are fused at junctions with record specific electrical and thermal conductivity.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13684

Transplanted photoreceptor precursors transfer proteins to host photoreceptors by a mechanism of cytoplasmic fusion OPEN
Mandeep S. Singh, Jasmin Balmer, Alun R. Barnard, Sher A. Aslam, Daniela Moralli, Catherine M. Green, Alona Barnea-Cramer, Isabel Duncan and Robert E. MacLaren
Previous studies have used fluorescently labelled cells to demonstrate the incorporation of transplanted photoreceptor precursors into the mouse retina. Here, the authors show that fluorescent proteins are passed between the host and transplanted cells rather than migration of donor cells into the retina.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13537

Confirmation of the topology of the Wendelstein 7-X magnetic field to better than 1:100,000 OPEN
T. Sunn Pedersen, M. Otte, S. Lazerson, P. Helander, S. Bozhenkov, C. Biedermann, T. Klinger, R. C. Wolf, H. -S. Bosch & The Wendelstein 7-X Team, Ivana Abramovic, Simppa Äkäslompolo, Pavel Aleynikov, Ksenia Aleynikova, Adnan Ali, Arturo Alonso, Gabor Anda, Tamara Andreeva, Enrique Ascasibar, Jürgen Baldzuhn et al.
Early stellarator designs suffered from high particle losses, an issue that can be addressed by optimization of the coils. Here the authors measure the magnetic field lines in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator, confirming that the complicated design of the superconducting coils has been realized successfully.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13493

Coding and decoding libraries of sequence-defined functional copolymers synthesized via photoligation OPEN
Nicolas Zydziak, Waldemar Konrad, Florian Feist, Sergii Afonin, Steffen Weidner and Christopher Barner-Kowollik
Controlling the molecular sequence of polymers and oligomers is a challenging task. Here the authors use a photoligation approach to synthesise macromolecules with functionality at defined positions throughout the chain, and additionally decode the sequence information via tandem mass spectrometry.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13672

Prospects for a prolonged slowdown in global warming in the early 21st century OPEN
Thomas R. Knutson, Rong Zhang and Larry W. Horowitz
Rates of global mean surface temperature increases have recently slowed. Here, using climate models, Knutson et al. examine how internal variability influences temperature evolution, finding that the recent slowdown may persist if coincident with an overestimated transient climate response or internal cooling episodes.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13676

Laser-induced phase separation of silicon carbide OPEN
Insung Choi, Hu Young Jeong, Hyeyoung Shin, Gyeongwon Kang, Myunghwan Byun, Hyungjun Kim, Adrian M. Chitu, James S. Im, Rodney S. Ruoff, Sung-Yool Choi and Keon Jae Lee
Laser beam-induced processing is industrially relevant but often challenging to study in terms of underlying phase transformations. Here authors characterize formation of thin, phase-separated carbon and silicon layers on a silicon carbide substrate by laser-induced melting and solidification.
30 November 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13562
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Erratum: Amine synthesis via iron-catalysed reductive coupling of nitroarenes with alkyl halides OPEN
Chi Wai Cheung and Xile Hu
06 December 2016 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms13776
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